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Echinococcus shiquicus is currently limited to the Qinghai–Tibet plateau, a large mountainous region in China. Although the zoonotic potential remains unknown, progress is being made on the distribution and intermediate host range. In this study, we report E. shiquicus within Gansu and Qinghai provinces in regions located not only around the central areas but also the southeast edge of the plateau and describe their genetic relationship with previous isolates from the plateau. From 1879 plateau pikas examined, 2.39% (95% CI 1.79–3.18) were infected with E. shiquicus. The highest prevalence of 10.26% (4.06–23.58) was recorded in Makehe town, Qinghai province. Overall the prevalence was marginally higher in Qinghai (2.5%, CI 1.82–3.43) than in Gansu (2%, CI 1.02–3.89). The cox1 and nad1 genes demonstrated high and low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, respectively. The median-joining network constructed by the cox1–nad1 gene sequences demonstrated a star-like configuration with a median vector (unsampled haplotype) occupying the centre of the network. No peculiar distinction or common haplotype was observed in isolates originating from the different provinces. The presence of E. shiquicus in regions of the southeast and northeast edges of the Qinghai–Tibet plateau and high genetic variation warrants more investigation into the haplotype distribution and genetic polymorphism by exploring more informative DNA regions of the mitochondrial genome to provide epidemiologically useful insight into the population structure of E. shiquicus across the plateau and its axis.
Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia hydatigena formerly referred to as Cysticercus tenuicollis is a disease of veterinary importance that constitutes a significant threat to livestock production worldwide, especially in endemic regions due to condemnation of visceral organs and mortality rate of infected young animals. While the genetic diversity among parasites is found to be potentially useful in many areas of research including molecular diagnostics, epidemiology and control, that of T. hydatigena across the globe remains poorly understood. In this study, analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of adult worms and larval stages of T. hydatigena isolated from dogs, sheep and a wild boar in China showed that the population structure consists of two major haplogroups with very high nucleotide substitutions involving synonymous and non-synonymous changes. Compared with other cestodes such as Echinococcus spp., the genetic variation observed between the haplogroups is sufficient for the assignment of major haplotype or genotype division as both groups showed a total of 166 point-mutation differences between the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences. Preliminary analysis of a nuclear protein-coding gene (pepck) did not reveal any peculiar changes between both groups which suggests that these variants may only differ in their mitochondrial makeup.
Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae is mainly subclinical and therefore can be diagnosed only in the laboratory. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for specific, sensitive and rapid detection of S. agalactiae in raw milk was developed. The general streptococci primers, which anneal to conserved areas within the 16S rRNA subunit gene, were used as positive controls. The specificity of S. agalactiae primers is based on various areas within conserved areas of the 16S rRNA genes of S. agalactiae. Results have indicated that the method enables the detection of 1 CFU/ml of S. agalactiae in raw milk after enrichment, followed by DNA extraction using a rapid and simple procedure developed for this purpose, and specific PCR reaction. The method developed can be used efficiently in the early infectious status investigation of S. agalactiae in the dairy herd and in prevention and control of S. agalactiae spread in a herd.
The activated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond process became one of the worldwide interesting projects in the 1980s. The basic question is why diamond can grow under activated low pressure conditions. The driving force of the transformation from graphite to diamond under low pressure is coming from a coupled reaction of the association of superequilibrium atomic hydrogen. The thermodynamic coupling effect in the activated CVD process is different from the catalyst effect in the high pressure, catalyst-assisted process for the artificial diamond growth.
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