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An in-house self-held respiration monitoring device (SHRMD) was developed for providing deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) radiotherapy. The use of SHRMD is evaluated in terms of reproducibility, stability and heart dose reduction.
Methods and materials:
Sixteen patients receiving radiotherapy of left breast cancer were planned for treatment with both a free breathing (FB) scan and a DIBH scan. Both FB and DIBH plans were generated for comparison of the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) artery and lung dose. All patients received their treatments with DIBH using SHRMD. Megavoltage cine images were acquired during treatments for evaluating the reproducibility and stability of treatment position using SHRMD.
Compared with FB plans, the maximum dose to the heart by DIBH technique with SHRMD was reduced by 29·9 ± 15·6%; and the maximum dose of the LAD artery was reduced by 41·6 ± 18·3%. The inter-fractional overall mean error was 0·01 cm and the intra-fractional overall mean error was 0·04 cm.
This study demonstrated the potential benefits of using the SHRMD for DIBH to reduce the heart and LAD dose. The patients were able to perform stable and reproducible DIBHs.
Ageing accompanied by a decline in cognitive performance may be a result of the long-term effects of oxidative stress on neurologic processes. It has been shown that high-cholesterol contents in the blood and brain may lead to the deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) protein in the brain, which damages brain cells. The present study was designed to observe the effect of polyphenol-rich Oriental plums on cognitive function and cerebral neurodegeneration-related protein expression in mice that were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 5 months. The study consisted of four groups: the control (Ctrl) group, which was fed the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93M diet; the high cholesterol (HC) group, which was fed the AIN-93M diet with 5 % cholesterol; the high cholesterol+low Oriental plum (LOP) group, which was fed the AIN-93M diet with 5 % cholesterol and 2 % Oriental plum powder; and the high cholesterol+high Oriental plum (HOP) group, which was fed the AIN-93M diet with 5 % cholesterol and 5 % Oriental plum powder. Measurements of cognitive function were assessed using the Morris water maze, and the mRNA expression of cholesterol hydroxylase (Cyp46), Aβ and β-secretase 1 (BACE1) were analysed. The results showed that cholesterol concentrations in both the blood and the brain were significantly higher in the HC group than in the Ctrl and HOP groups at the end of the trial. The high-cholesterol diet per se produced significant cognitive deficits, which were accompanied by a significantly increased mRNA expression of Cyp46, BACE1, Aβ and 24-hydroxycholesterol in the brain cortex and hippocampus. However, all of these variables were non-significantly increased in the HOP group as compared to the Ctrl group. In conclusion, incorporating polyphenol-enriched Oriental plum into a high-cholesterol diet can ameliorate some of the symptoms of neurodegenerative conditions.
There are close links among hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Glutamine (GLN) is an amino acid with immunomodulatory properties. The present study investigated the effect of dietary GLN on oxidative stress-relative gene expressions and tissue oxidative damage in diabetes. There were one normal control (NC) and two diabetic groups in the present study. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide followed by streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in the NC group were fed a regular chow diet. In the two diabetic groups, one group (diabetes mellitus, DM) was fed a common semi-purified diet while the other group received a diet in which part of the casein was replaced by GLN (DM-GLN). GLN provided 25 % of total amino acid N. The experimental groups were fed the respective diets for 8 weeks, and then the rats were killed for further analysis. The results showed that blood thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) mRNA expression in the diabetic groups was higher than that in the NC group. Compared with the DM group, the DM-GLN group had lower glutamine fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1, a receptor of advanced glycation end products, and Txnip gene expressions in blood mononuclear cells. The total antioxidant capacity was lower and antioxidant enzyme activities were altered by the diabetic condition. GLN supplementation increased antioxidant capacity and normalised antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, the renal nitrotyrosine level and Txnip mRNA expression were lower when GLN was administered. These results suggest that dietary GLN supplementation decreases oxidative stress-related gene expression, increases the antioxidant potential and may consequently attenuate renal oxidative damage in rats with STZ-induced diabetes.
This study investigated the effect of n-3 fatty acids on adhesion molecules and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in diabetic mice with sepsis. Diabetes was induced by a streptozotocin injection. Mice with blood glucose levels exceeding 2000 mg/l were considered diabetic. Diabetic mice were assigned to two groups with a medium-fat (10 %, w/w) diet either provided by soyabean oil (SO, n 30) or fish oil (FO, n 30). n-3 fatty acids provided 4·3 % of the total energy and the n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was 1:2 in the FO diet. After feeding the respective diet for 3 weeks, all mice had sepsis induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and were killed at 0, 6 or 24 h after CLP, with ten mice at each time-point. The result showed that compared with the SO group, FO group had lower PGE2 and TNF-α levels in peritoneal lavage fluid after CLP. Lymphocyte CD11a/CD18 expressions were higher at 6 h, whereas the percentage was lower at 24 h in the SO group than in the FO group. Neutrophil CD11b/CD18 expressions were significantly higher in the SO group than in the FO group at 0 h. The FO group had lower organ MPO activities at various time-points after CLP when compared with those of the SO group. The present findings suggest that compared with the diabetic mice fed SO, a low-dose n-3 fatty acid supplementation may attenuate leucocyte adhesion and infiltration into tissues in diabetic mice complicated with sepsis.
This study investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) diet on plasma intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels and leucocyte integrin expression in polymicrobial sepsis. Mice were randomly assigned to a control group and an FO group. The control group was fed a medium-fat diet containing soyabean oil, whereas in the FO group, 70 % of the soyabean oil was replaced by FO for 3 weeks. After that, sepsis was induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in the experimental groups and mice were killed at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively, after CLP. Results showed that compared with the control group, plasma ICAM-1 levels were higher in the FO group 6 h after CLP. Intra-lymphocyte interferon-γ expression in the FO group was lower, whereas IL-4 expression was higher than in the control group 12 and 24 h after CLP. The expression of leucocyte integrin was significantly higher in the FO group 12 and 24 h after CLP. The FO group had higher IL-6 levels at 12 h in the lungs, at 6 and 12 h in the kidneys, and at 6, 12 and 24 h in the intestines after CLP. The survival rate did not differ between the two groups after CLP. The present findings suggest that pretreatment with an FO diet enhances adhesion molecule and inflammatory cytokine expressions during sepsis, which might aggravate the inflammatory reaction and increase neutrophil infiltration into tissues. In addition, FO diet promotes the Th2-type response and suppresses cellular immune response in polymicrobial sepsis.
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