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Identifying youths most at risk to COVID-19-related mental illness is essential for the development of effective targeted interventions.
To compare trajectories of mental health throughout the pandemic in youth with and without prior mental illness and identify those most at risk of COVID-19-related mental illness.
Data were collected from individuals aged 18–26 years (N = 669) from two existing cohorts: IMAGEN, a population-based cohort; and ESTRA/STRATIFY, clinical cohorts of individuals with pre-existing diagnoses of mental disorders. Repeated COVID-19 surveys and standardised mental health assessments were used to compare trajectories of mental health symptoms from before the pandemic through to the second lockdown.
Mental health trajectories differed significantly between cohorts. In the population cohort, depression and eating disorder symptoms increased by 33.9% (95% CI 31.78–36.57) and 15.6% (95% CI 15.39–15.68) during the pandemic, respectively. By contrast, these remained high over time in the clinical cohort. Conversely, trajectories of alcohol misuse were similar in both cohorts, decreasing continuously (a 15.2% decrease) during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic symptom severity predicted the observed mental health trajectories in the population cohort. Surprisingly, being relatively healthy predicted increases in depression and eating disorder symptoms and in body mass index. By contrast, those initially at higher risk for depression or eating disorders reported a lasting decrease.
Healthier young people may be at greater risk of developing depressive or eating disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Targeted mental health interventions considering prior diagnostic risk may be warranted to help young people cope with the challenges of psychosocial stress and reduce the associated healthcare burden.
Drawing on the descriptive representation literature, we argue that religious identity is a social identity similar to gender or race, which leads a person to feel represented by someone who shares their religious identity. We argue that religious identity motivates approbation for public officials that is distinct from partisanship. We find that constituents who share the religious identity of their congressional representatives are significantly more likely to approve of their representative's performance in office. In addition, those who share a religious identity with President Obama are more trusting of him; particularly among those for whom religion is important. Finally, we find that shared religious identity moderates the relationship between partisanship and trust in the President. All else equal, Republicans who share a religious identity with President Obama are 500% more likely to trust him than a Republican who does not.
Tourism is important for Africa: international tourist arrivals to Africa continue to grow, income from tourism is crucial to national economies, and tourism investments are considered among the most profitable. This edited volume deals with the interaction of local communities with tourists coming into their areas and villages. Based upon a common theoretical approach, fourteen cases of African tourism are discussed which involve direct contact between 'hosts' and 'guests'. The viewpoint throughout is from the side of the locals, establishing how the processes of interaction shape each small scale destination. Crucial in Africa is the fact that the large majority of tourism is game oriented and the interaction between locals and visitors is very much 'tainted' by this fact. Central is the notion of the tourist bubble - the infrastructure that is generated locally (and internationally) for hosting tourists, as it is this institutional interface that tends to impact on the local society and culture, not the tourists themselves directly. The examples come from all over Africa, from the Sahara to the Eastern Cape, and from Kenya to Ghana. All contributions are based upon original fieldwork. Walter van Beek is professor of anthropology at Tilburg University and Senior Researcher at the African Studies Centre, Leiden; Annette Schmidt is curator of the African department at the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden, and is an archaeologist with a long experience in cultural management projects.
Although Africa is not the centre of world tourism and will not be for the foreseeable future, tourism is important for Africa. African tourism has grown in international tourist arrivals, but its present 3-5% share in world tourism is, viewing its land surface and population, a clear under representation. The great magnet for global tourism still is the Mediterranean area, where over 40% of all world tourism is destined for, but also tourism to Asia amounts to 15% of arrivals. The prognostics of the UNWTO before the credit crisis suggested a doubling of tourism arrivals and revenues in the next 15 years, a growth of over 3-5% per year and after the crisis does so again. During the crisis in 2009 global tourism slumped with – 4%, but African tourism continued to grow, 8% for Sub-Saharan Africa, 4% for North Africa, with a prognosis of 5.5 market share for 2010, boosted slightly by the WC 2010. The data on the first half of 2011 show a general increase of 5% in arrivals, and a steady growth of 9% for Africa. Though Africa does show a gap between tourist arrivals and expenditures, income from tourism is crucial and tourism investments are considered to be the most profitable.
Not only is tourism unevenly distributed among continents, also within Africa the distribution of tourists between sub regions and countries is extremely skewed; roughly speaking, Northern Africa takes one third of the market share, southern Africa one third, Eastern Africa a quarter, Western Africa 10%, and the whole of Central Africa has to do with the remaining 1%.
We investigate the evolution of the Hα equivalent width, EW(Hα), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, using the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the HST-WFC3. Combining our Hα measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8<z<1.5 with those of ground based surveys at lower and higher redshift, we can consistently determine the evolution of the EW(Hα) distribution from z=0 to z=2.2. We find that at all masses the characteristic EW(Hα) is decreasing towards the present epoch, and that at each redshift the EW(Hα) is lower for high-mass galaxies. We find EW(Hα) ~ (1+z)1.8 with little mass dependence. Qualitatively, this measurement is a model-independent confirmation of the evolution of star forming galaxies with redshift. A quantitative conversion of EW(Hα) to sSFR (specific star-formation rate) is model dependent, because of differential reddening corrections between the continuum and the Balmer lines. The observed EW(Hα) can be reproduced with the characteristic evolutionary history for galaxies, whose star formation rises with cosmic time to z ~ 2.5 and then decreases to z = 0. This implies that EW(Hα) rises to 400 Å at z = 8. The sSFR evolves faster than EW(Hα), as the mass-to-light ratio also evolves with redshift. We find that the sSFR evolves as (1+z)3.2, nearly independent of mass, consistent with previous reddening insensitive estimates. We confirm previous results that the observed slope of the sSFR-z relation is steeper than the one predicted by models, but models and observations agree in finding little mass dependence.
Ich träumte, daß ich nur noch von Rechtecken, Dreiecken, Achtekken träume, die alle irgendwie wie Weihnachtsgebäck aussehen, weil es doch verboten ist zu träumen.
[I dreamt I was dreaming of nothing but rectangles, triangles, and octagons, all of which somehow looked like Christmas cookies — you see, it was forbidden to dream.]
This simple but intricate meta-dream, about dreaming in defiance of a prohibition against dreams, was dreamt by an anonymous young man in Germany in the summer of 1933. Its starting point is, as it seems, the fear that dreams might be forbidden. It is hardly surprising that such an idea should emerge in a document coinciding historically with the establishment of a totalitarian regime. However, the man's dream expresses both the fear that dreams may be forbidden and the knowledge that dreams cannot be forbidden, that it is impossible to stop them. The compromise offered here is a form of dreaming implementing a self-censorship that reduces the dream content to abstract geometrical shapes, thus erasing and blocking all mimetic qualities normally characteristic of the dream process. Ironically, even such a precaution does not prevent the occurrence of an element of desire. The resemblance of the geometrical forms with Christmas cookies indicates that the dreamer is occupied with pleasures to be found in the empirical world.
More important than such details is the general significance of this remarkable dream. It draws the reader's attention to the critical potential of dreaming.
Animal models of anxiety disorders emphasize the crucial role of locus ceruleus–noradrenergic (norepinephrine, NE) signaling, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their interactions in the expression of anxiety-like behavioral responses to stress. Despite clinical evidence for the efficacy of a β-noradrenergic receptor blockade with propranolol in the alleviation of anxiety symptoms and the secondary prevention of post traumatic stress disorder, preclinical evidence for a β-noradrenergic modulation of BLA activity in humans is missing.
We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy volunteers with probabilistic mapping of intra-amygdalar responses to fearful, neutral and happy facial expressions to test the hypothesis that a β-noradrenergic receptor blockade with propranolol would inactivate the BLA.
Consistent with our a priori hypothesis, propranolol diminished BLA responses to facial expressions, independent of their emotional valence. The absence of activity changes in probabilistically defined visual control regions underscores the specific action of propranolol in the BLA.
Our findings provide the missing link between the anxiolytic potential of propranolol and the biological basis of β-noradrenergic activation in the human BLA as a key target for the pharmacological inhibition of anxiety neurocircuitry. Moreover, our findings add to emerging evidence that NE modulates both the reactivity (sensitivity) and the operating characteristics (specificity) of the BLA via β-noradrenergic receptors.
We demonstrate that quantifying the intrinsic variability of quasars by fitting individual structure function data pairs with a 2-parameter power law model separates quasars from contaminating variable and non-variable point sources with a completeness of 93% and a purity of 99%. This approach can be used to select quasar samples in surveys like that being performed by Pan-STARRS1, where the usual color selection of quasars is not possible due to a filter system that is too red.
Molecular order and morphological order are two characteristics of feather fiber that make it unique. The fiber is highly microcrystalline and is very durable, i.e., resistant to both mechanical and thermal stress. Feather structure at the microscopic level is a complicated mixture of straight and branched fibers held together by a central fiber to form specific macroscopic structures. The proper design of processes to incorporate feathers into composite products 1) preserves the fiber's molecular properties and 2) alters its micro-/macroscopic morphology to conform to existing composite process requirements.