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Targeted surveillance has focused on device-associated infections and surgical site infections (SSIs) and is often limited to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in high-risk areas. Longitudinal trends in all HAIs, including other types of HAIs, and HAIs outside of intensive care units (ICUs) remain unclear. We examined the incidences of all HAIs using comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance over a 12-year period (2001–2012).
This retrospective observational study was conducted at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Hospitals, a tertiary care academic facility. All HAIs, including 5 major infections with 14 specific infection sites as defined using CDC criteria, were ascertained through comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance. Generalized linear models were used to examine the incidence rate difference by infection type over time.
A total of 16,579 HAIs included 6,397 cases in ICUs and 10,182 cases outside ICUs. The incidence of overall HAIs decreased significantly hospital-wide (−3.4 infections per 1,000 patient days), in ICUs (−8.4 infections per 1,000 patient days), and in non-ICU settings (−1.9 infections per 1,000 patient days). The incidences of bloodstream infection, urinary tract infection, and pneumonia in hospital-wide settings decreased significantly, but the incidences of SSI and lower respiratory tract infection remained unchanged. The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) increased remarkably. The outcomes were estimated to include 700 overall HAIs prevented, 40 lives saved, and cost savings in excess of $10 million.
We demonstrated success in reducing overall HAIs over a 12-year period. Our data underscore the necessity for surveillance and infection prevention interventions outside of the ICUs, for non–device-associated HAIs, and for CDI.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1139–1147
Si is a promising anode material for Li storage due to its high theoretical specific capacity surpassing 4200 Ah/kg. Si based anodes exhibit an extreme instability upon electrochemical incorporation of Li given the accompanied large volume expansion of about 400%. We show innovative anode assemblies composed of a forest of free standing Si nanowires conformally integrated on carbon meshes. The morphology of silicon nanowires allows a volume expansion and compression lowering strain incorporation. In this paper, we demonstrate the utilization of SiNW grown on top of a current collector made of a carbon fiber network. This leads to an increase of stability of Si with a remaining effective capacitance above 2000 Ah/kg(Si) after 225 full charge/discharge cycles. This is significantly better compared to previous results shown in literature. The anodes are fabricated by a simple and inexpensive method promising for a transfer into industrial integration.