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Affective disturbances in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may represent a transdiagnostic etiological process as well as a target of intervention. Hypotheses on similarities and differences in various parameters of affective dynamics (intensity, successive/acute changes, variability, and reactivity to stress) between the two disorders were tested.
Experience sampling method was used to assess dynamics of positive and negative affect, 10 times a day over 6 consecutive days. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 46) and patients with bipolar disorder (n = 46) were compared against age-matched healthy controls (n = 46).
Compared to controls, the schizophrenia group had significantly more intense momentary negative affect, a lower likelihood of acute changes in positive affect, and reduced within-person variability of positive affect. The bipolar disorder group was not significantly different from either the schizophrenia group or the healthy control group on any affect indexes. Within the schizophrenia group, level of depression was associated with weaker reactivity to stress for negative affect. Within the bipolar disorder group, level of depression was associated with lower positive affect.
Patients with schizophrenia endured a more stable and negative affective state than healthy individuals, and were less likely to be uplifted in response to happenings in daily life. There is little evidence that these affective constructs characterize the psychopathology of bipolar disorder; such investigation may have been limited by the heterogeneity within group. Our findings supported the clinical importance of assessing multiple facets of affective dynamics beyond the mean levels of intensity.
Contrasting the well-described effects of early intervention (EI) services for youth-onset psychosis, the potential benefits of the intervention for adult-onset psychosis are uncertain. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of EI on functioning and symptomatic improvement in adult-onset psychosis, and the optimal duration of the intervention.
360 psychosis patients aged 26–55 years were randomized to receive either standard care (SC, n = 120), or case management for two (2-year EI, n = 120) or 4 years (4-year EI, n = 120) in a 4-year rater-masked, parallel-group, superiority, randomized controlled trial of treatment effectiveness (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00919620). Primary (i.e. social and occupational functioning) and secondary outcomes (i.e. positive and negative symptoms, and quality of life) were assessed at baseline, 6-month, and yearly for 4 years.
Compared with SC, patients with 4-year EI had better Role Functioning Scale (RFS) immediate [interaction estimate = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001–0.014, p = 0.02] and extended social network (interaction estimate = 0.011, 95% CI = 0.004–0.018, p = 0.003) scores. Specifically, these improvements were observed in the first 2 years. Compared with the 2-year EI group, the 4-year EI group had better RFS total (p = 0.01), immediate (p = 0.01), and extended social network (p = 0.05) scores at the fourth year. Meanwhile, the 4-year (p = 0.02) and 2-year EI (p = 0.004) group had less severe symptoms than the SC group at the first year.
Specialized EI treatment for psychosis patients aged 26–55 should be provided for at least the initial 2 years of illness. Further treatment up to 4 years confers little benefits in this age range over the course of the study.
Negative affect (NA) has been suggested to be both an antecedent and a consequence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). Furthermore, negative appraisals of voices have been theorized to contribute to the maintenance of AVH. Using the experience sampling method (ESM), this study examined the bi-directional relationship between NA and AVH, and the moderating effect of negative beliefs about voices.
Forty-seven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with frequent AVH completed a clinical interview, followed by ESM for 10 times a day over 6 days on an electronic device. Time-lagged analyses were conducted using multilevel regression modeling. Beliefs about voices were assessed at baseline.
A total of 1654 data points were obtained. NA predicted an increase in AVH in the subsequent moment, and AVH predicted an increase in NA in the subsequent moment. Baseline beliefs about voices as malevolent and omnipotent significantly strengthened the association between NA and AVH within the same moment. In addition, the belief of omnipotence was associated with more hallucinatory experiences in the moment following NA. However, beliefs about voices were not associated directly with momentary levels of NA or AVH.
Experiences of NA and AVH drove each other, forming a feedback loop that maintained the voices. The associations between NA and AVH, either within the same moment or across moments, were exacerbated by negative beliefs about voices. Our results suggest that affect-improving interventions may stop the feedback loop and reduce AVH frequency.
Anxiety disorders are prevalent yet under-recognized in late life. We examined the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a representative sample of community dwelling older adults in Hong Kong.
Data on 1,158 non-demented respondents aged 60–75 years were extracted from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity survey (HKMMS). Anxiety was assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R).
One hundred and thirty-seven respondents (11.9%, 95% CI = 10–13.7%) had common mental disorders with a CIS-R score of 12 or above. 8% (95% CI = 6.5–9.6%) had anxiety, 2.2% (95% CI = 1.3–3%) had an anxiety disorder comorbid with depressive disorder, and 1.7% (95% CI = 1–2.5%) had depression. Anxious individuals were more likely to be females (χ2 = 25.3, p < 0.001), had higher chronic physical burden (t = −9.3, p < 0.001), lower SF-12 physical functioning score (t = 9.2, p < 0.001), and poorer delayed recall (t = 2.3, p = 0.022). The risk of anxiety was higher for females (OR 2.8, 95% C.I. 1.7–4.6, p < 0.001) and those with physical illnesses (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.3–1.6, p < 0.001). The risk of anxiety disorders increased in those with disorders of cardiovascular (OR 1.9, 95% C.I. 1.2–2.9, p = 0.003), musculoskeletal (OR 2.0, 95% C.I. 1.5–2.7, p < 0.001), and genitourinary system (OR 2.0, 95% C.I. 1.3–3.2, p = 0.002).
The prevalence of anxiety disorders in Hong Kong older population was 8%. Female gender and those with poor physical health were at a greater risk of developing anxiety disorders. Our findings also suggested potential risk for early sign of memory impairment in cognitively healthy individuals with anxiety disorders.
Perovskite based photovoltaics have recently emerged as the forerunner in the next generation photovoltaic technology because of the rapid increase of power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, it is well recognized that the exposure to moisture, heat and light causes the degradation of perovskite  (especially for methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) which is the most commonly used perovskite material). It makes stability a main issue for the commercialization of perovskite based photovoltaics. Hence, an advanced encapsulation method is one of the keys to improve the stability. Here we present a comparison study between different encapsulation methods. Perovskite based photovoltaics devices were encapsulated using UV epoxy resin, with or without the addition of desiccant and the deposition of SiO2 layer. By minimizing the ingress of moisture and oxygen, devices with storage in ambient air under one sun continuous illumination could retain 94 % of the initial performance (PCE around 13%) after two days.
To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization at the time of admission to acute medical units and to develop a cost-effective screening strategy.
Nasal and groin screening cultures were performed for patients at admission to 15 acute medical units in all 7 catchment regions in Hong Kong. All MRSA isolates were subjected to spa typing.
The overall carriage rate of MRSA was 14.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.5–15.1). MRSA history within the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.60 [95% CI, 3.28–6.44]), old age home residence (adjusted OR, 3.32 [95% CI, 2.78–3.98]), and bedbound state (adjusted OR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.75–2.74]) were risk factors selected as MRSA screening criteria that provided reasonable sensitivity (67.4%) and specificity (81.8%), with an affordable burden (25.2%). spa typing showed that 89.5% (848/948) of the isolates were clustered into the 4 spa clonal complexes (CCs): spa CC1081, spa CC032, spa CC002, and spa CC4677. Patients colonized with MRSA spa types t1081 (OR, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.49–2.09]) and t4677 (OR, 3.09 [95% CI, 1.54–6.02]) were more likely to be old age home residents.
MRSA carriage at admission to acute medical units was prevalent in Hong Kong. Our results suggest that targeted screening is a pragmatic approach to increase the detection of the MRSA reservoir. Molecular typing suggests that old age homes are epicenters in amplifying the MRSA burden in acute hospitals. Enhancement of infection control measures in old age homes is important for the control of MRSA in hospitals.
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on p-GaN/ZnO heterojunction were fabricated. GaN was deposited on sapphire using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and two kinds of ZnO i.e. ZnO thin film deposited by sputtering and ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by hydrothermal method were used as n-type layer respectively. MgO film with the thickness around 10 nm was deposited by electron-beam deposition to act as an interlayer between GaN and ZnO. Photoluminescence, electroluminescence and I-V curves were measured to compare the properties of GaN based heterojunction LEDs with different architectures. The existence of MgO interlayer as well as the morphology of ZnO obviously influenced the electrical and optical properties of GaN based LEDs. The effect of MgO interlayer on ZnO growth, properties and I-V curves and emission spectra of LEDs is discussed in detail.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely used for opto-electronic products such as organic light-emitting diodes, organic photovoltaic devices and liquid crystal displays due to its high transparency and electrical conductivity. Since there is a trade-off between the conductivity and transparency of ITO, it is necessary to optimize performances of opto-electronic products by balancing the sheet resistance and transmittance. Both sheet resistance and transmittance are affected by a number of factors such as working temperature, working pressure, oxygen-to-argon ratio during the fabricating process, and thickness. In our study, ITO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by dc sputtering. Effects of ITO with different thicknesses, sheet resistances, and transmission spectra on the performance of bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices were investigated.
The effect of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak on the willingness of laypersons to provide bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) using standard CPR (SCPR) or compression-only CPR (CCPR) was evaluated.The preferred type of SCPR in the post-SARS era was assessed.
A descriptive study was conducted through telephone interviews. Persons who attended a CPR coursefrom January 2000 through February 2003 answered a structured questionnaire. The respondents' willingnessto perform SCPR or CCPR during a witnessed cardiac arrest of an average adult stranger or that of a family member in the pre-SARS and the post-SARS era was surveyed.
Data for 305 respondents were processed. For the scenario of cardiac arrest of an average stranger, more respondents would perform CCPR than SCPR in the pre-SARS era (83.6% vs. 61.3%, p <0.001) and in the post- SARS era (77.4% vs. 28.9%, p <0.001). In the scenario of the cardiac arrest of a family member, more would perform CCPR than SCPR in the pre-SARS era (92.8% vs. 87.2%, p <0.001) and in the post-SARS era (92.8% vs. 84.9%, p <0.001). After SARS, more respondents were unwilling to perform SCPR (p <0.001) and CCPR (p <0.001) on strangers. After SARS, more respondents were unwilling to perform SCPR on a family member (p = 0.039), but there was no difference in the preference to perform CCPR (p = 1.000).
Concerns about SARS adversely affected the willingness of respondents to perform SCPR or CCPRon strangers and to perform SCPR on family members.Compression-only CPR was preferred to SCPR to resuscitate strangers experiencing cardiac arrest after the emergence of SARS.
Multilayer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using chlorotricarbonyl rhenium (I) bis(phenylimino)acenaphthene (Re-DIAN) complex as photosensitizer were studied. The complex is sublimable, has lower band gap, good thermal stability and good processibility. It has broad absorption in UV-visible region. Therefore, Re-DIAN exhibits good photosensitising property for photovoltaic cells. Multilayer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells with simple structures were fabricated base on Re-DIAN complex. The active layer consists of a blend of Re-DIAN and fullerene that were co-deposited in the same layer by vacuum deposition. The photovoltaic properties of the devices were studied by irradiaton under AM1.5 simulated solar light. The effects of changing the co-deposition film thickness, amount of Re-DIAN photosensitizer, and hole transporting materials were studied.
United Christian Hospital initiated a doctor-based cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Program. It is a two-hour, focused, adult CPR course, suitable for adults of different age groups and of different educational levels. The course was rated highly by the participants. Most trainees acquired CPR knowledge and skills, and had confidence to perform CPR. This type of training could improve the rate of bystander CPR for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in this region. Avoiding the complexity and pass-fail psychology that is used in the traditional CPR training curriculum, it can be an alternative to the traditional four-hour instructor-based Basic Life Support (BLS) course.
Following upon a previous paper  on the existence of chiral transformations in a foliated version of the Cremmer, Julia and Scherk model, we deduce a couple of interesting properties of the model. These are:
(i) TM4 is isomorphic to a quotient Lie pseudoalgebra on the algebra of basic functions in M11;
(ii) There is a locally trivial fibration which exhibits M11 as M7 × U, U ⊂ W and W is the basic manifold of the foliation 
(iii) The chiral group of the model is identified as Clx (L, gL) × Clx (Q, gQ), the factors are respectively the multiplication groups of units in the Clifford algebras Clx (L, gL) and Clx (Q, gQ) and matching of this group with phenomenology is briefly discussed.
A series of conjugated polymers functionalized with different ruthenium polypyridine metal complexes were synthesized by the palladium catalyzed reaction. Two conjugated polymer systems have been studied: 1. poly(phenylenevinylene) with bis(2,2':6',2”-terpyridine) ruthenium (II) on the mainchain and 2. quinoxaline based polymers with tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium (II). The ruthenium polypyridine complexes exhibit a long-lived metal to ligand charge transfer excited state which can enhance the photosensitivity of the resulting polymers. Different physical properties such as the photoconductivity and charge mobility in these polymers are also studied.
A novel type of photorefractive polymers, containing a conjugated backbone and a second order NLO chromophore, has been developed. A new polymerization method based on the Stille coupling reaction was explored to synthesize these materials. It was expected that the conjugated backbone would absorb photons in the visible region and play the triple role of charge generator, charge transporter and backbone. Several physical measurements demonstrated this expectation. Two beam coupling experiments clearly indicated an asymmetric optical energy exchange between two beams without applying an external electrical field. This is a conclusive demonstration for photorefractivity. Also, large optical gain of 5.7 cm-1 was observed under zero-field condition, which is comparable to most inorganic photorefractive materials. The versatility of the reaction makes possible the advancement of new polymer structures.
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