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The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is one of the most detrimental ectoparasite on poultry farms worldwide. The blood fed on birds provides the mites with nutrition and energy for their activities, development and reproduction. In the evaluation of the efficacy of novel drugs or vaccines against PRMs, their effects on blood digestion are generally used as a key parameter. The blood digestion of haematophagous arthropods (including D. gallinae) is usually assessed by weighing; however, this method shows some limitations. The main objective of the present study was to develop a scoring method that can quickly and visually evaluate the blood digestion status of PRMs. A 0–4 point scoring criterion was established to describe the blood digestion status of D. gallinae based on the changes in appearance in the intestinal tract of PRMs during the blood digestion process. There was a good consistency between the results obtained by the blood digestion scoring and the weighing, indicating the reliability of this new method. The results obtained from volunteers were consistent with the results from researchers with low coefficient of variation, indicating that the scoring method has good practicability. The applicability of the scoring method was confirmed in an efficacy study, where it was found that doramectin could significantly inhibit the blood digestion of PRMs, lowering the blood digestion score.
To explore whether embryo culture with melatonin (MT) can improve the embryonic development and clinical outcome of patients with repeated cycles after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) failure, immature oocytes from controlled ovarian superovulation cycles were collected for in vitro maturation (IVM) and ICSI. The obtained embryos were cultured in 0, 10–11, 10–9, 10–7 and 10–5 M MT medium respectively, and 10–9 M was screened out as the optimal concentration. Subsequently, 140 patients who underwent failed IVF/ICSI cycles received 140 cycles of embryo culture in vitro with a medium containing 10–9 M MT, these 140 MT culture cycles were designated as the experimental group (10–9 M group), and the control group was the previous failed cycles of patients (0 M group). The results showed that the fertilization, cleavage, high-quality embryo, blastocyst, and high-quality blastocyst rates of the 10–9 M group were significantly higher than those of the 0 M group (P < 0.01; P < 0.01; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001). To date, in total, 50 vitrified-warmed cycle transfers have been performed in the 10–9 M group and the implantation rate, biochemical pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rate were significantly higher than those in the 0 M group (all P < 0.0001). Two healthy infants were delivered successfully and the other 18 women who achieved clinical pregnancy also had good examination indexes. Therefore the application of 10–9 M MT to embryo cultures in vitro improved embryonic development in patients with repeated cycles after failed IVF/ICSI cycles and had good clinical outcomes.
This paper presents a cavity-backed dual-slot antenna in 0.13-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The dual-slot structure is excited by a cross-shaped strip line and a cavity which is formed by the topmost metal layer connected to the bottom metal layer through vias in between. By adopting dual-slot and cross-shaped feed line, the bandwidth is significantly enhanced by 196% compared with the single-slot antenna with straight feed line. The reason for bandwidth enhancement has been analyzed. The proposed antenna shows a measured impedance bandwidth of 15.2 GHz from 248.2 to 263.4 GHz for |S11| < −10 dB. The simulated and measured peak gains of the cavity-backed dual-slot antenna are −1.3 and −2.1 dBi, respectively. The simulated radiation efficiency is 31.1%. The total size of the antenna is 0.46 mm × 0.48 mm.
The bubble packing method can generate high-quality node sets in simple and complex domains. However, its efficiency remains to be improved. This study is a part of an ongoing effort to introduce several acceleration schemes to reduce the cost of simulation. Firstly, allow the viscosity coefficient c in the bubble governing equations to change according the coordinate of the bubble which are defined separately as odd and normal bubbles, and meanwhile with the saw-shape relationship with time or iterations. Then, in order to relieve the over crowded initial bubble placement, two coefficients w1 and w2 are introduced to modify the insertion criterion. The range of those two coefficients are discussed to be w1 = 1, w2 ∈ [0.5,0.8]. Finally, a self-adaptive termination condition is logically set when the stable system equilibrium is achieved. Numerical examples illustrate that the computing cost can significantly decrease by roughly 80% via adopting various combination of proper schemes (except the uniform placement example), and the average qualities of corresponding Delaunay triangulation substantially exceed 0.9. It shows that those strategies are efficient and can generate a node set with high quality.
Allelic expression of the rice yield-related gene, leucine-rich receptor-like kinase 6 (LRK6), in the hybrid of 93-11 (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Indica var. 93-11) and Nipponbare (O. sativa L. subsp. Japonica var. Nipponbare) is determined by allelic promoter cis-elements. Using deletion analysis of the LRK6 promoter, we identified two distinct regions that might contribute to LRK6 expression. Sequence alignment revealed differences in these LRK6 promoter regions in 93-11 and Nipponbare. One of the segments, named differential sequence of LRK6 promoter 2 (DSLP2), contains potential transcription factor binding sites. Using a yeast one-hybrid assay, we isolated an ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) protein that binds to DSLP2. Sequence analysis and a GCC-box assay showed that the ERF gene, O. sativa ERF 3 (OsERF3), which belongs to ERF subfamily class II, has a conserved ERF domain and an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression repressor motif. We used an in vivo mutation assay to identify a new motif (5′-TAA(A)GT-3′) located in DSLP2, which interacts with OsERF3. These results suggest that OsERF3, an AP2 (APETALA 2 Gene)/ERF transcription factor, binds the LRK6 promoter at this new motif, which might cause differential expression of LRK6 in the 93-11/Nipponbare hybrid.
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