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In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Post-tonsillectomy bleeding is the most frequent complication of tonsillectomy. Inherited platelet function disorders have an estimated prevalence of 1 per cent. Any association between post-tonsillectomy bleeds and undiagnosed inherited platelet function disorders has not been investigated before.
To assess the prevalence of inherited platelet function disorders in a cohort of post-tonsillectomy bleed patients.
An observational cohort study was conducted using hospital digital records. Platelet function analyser 100 (‘PFA-100’) closure time was tested on post-tonsillectomy bleed patients who presented to hospital.
Between 2013 and 2017, 9 of 91 post-tonsillectomy bleed patients who underwent platelet function analyser 100 testing (9.89 per cent) had positive results. Five patients (5.49 per cent) had undiagnosed inherited platelet function disorders. Four patients had false positive results secondary to a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effect (specificity of 95.3 per cent) proven by repeat testing six weeks later, off medication. The false negative rate was 0 per cent.
The prevalence of inherited platelet function disorders in our post-tonsillectomy bleed cohort is five-fold higher than in the general population. Platelet function analyser 100 testing when patients present with a post-tonsillectomy bleed allows management of their inherited platelet function disorder.
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Armenia has always had an ambiguous place between the major powers, be they the East Roman empire and Sasanian Iran, the Byzantine empire and the caliphate, or the Ottoman empire and the Safavids. Armenian loyalties have not been consistent, either in support of a coherent internal policy or with regard to external diplomacy. The very definition of Armenia highlights the problem. Does the term refer to a geographical entity – and if so, what are its borders? Or does it refer to a people with common bonds – and if so, are those bonds linguistic, religious, cultural or political?
Rare clasts of limestone contained in the uppermost Carboniferous Fitzroy Tillite Formation of the Falkland Islands contain a rich Cambrian fauna of archaeocyaths together with a radiocyath and a few trilobites. Neither Cambrian strata nor limestone are present in the indigenous rock succession and the clasts are regarded as exotic erratics, introduced during the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation of southern Gondwana, prior to its Mesozoic break-up. Nineteen archaeocyath taxa have been identified, with seven (plus a radiocyath) occurring in a single clast. Trilobite identifications are less definitive, but they are compared to Yorkella and the Siberian genera Edelsteinaspis, Namanoia and Chondrinouyina. The archaeocyath fauna has an Australo–Antarctic character and the Transantarctic Mountains seem the most likely source for these unusual erratics. Most recent reconstructions of Gondwana rotate a Falklands microplate into a position between South Africa and East Antarctica. There, it is in proximity with the Eastern Cape Province, where tillites within the Permo-Carboniferous Dwyka Group are correlatives of the Fitzroy Tillite Formation, and the ‘Atlantic’ end of the Transantarctic Mountains. The Dwyka Group tillites also contain rare clasts of archaeocyathan limestone and the rotational reconstruction produces a continuity of the apparent ice-flow directions in South Africa and the Falkland Islands.
From time to time workers in various laboratories have published details of diets capable of maintaining their respective rat colonies in good health and supplying reasonably uniform animals for laboratory requirements. In response to enquiries regarding our feeding methods, the present note records the stock diet used at this Institute.
A new form of photo-electric photometer or colorimeter is described which permits of accurate and objective readings in a wide range of colorimetric work with small quantities of solutions. The instrument is of the null-point type and hence requires calibration to suit the particular estimation.
The writer is indebted to the Earl of Moray Fund of the University of Edinburgh for financial assistance towards the expenses of the earlier part of the work.
The original model was made by A. H. Baird of Edinburgh, the model described above by Wm. Watson and Sons, London, to whom, and to Mr W. E. Watson-Baker, I am indebted for suggestions on a number of points.