Using ion implantation different rare earth luminescent centers (Gd3+, Tb3+, Eu3+, Ce3+, Tm3+, Er3+) were incorporated into the silicon dioxide layer of a purpose-designed Metal Oxide Silicon (MOS) capacitor with advanced electrical performance, further called a MOS-light emitting device (MOSLED). The silicon dioxide layer did not contain silicon nanoclusters. Efficient electroluminescence was obtained from UV to infrared with a transparent top electrode made of indium-tin oxide. The electroluminescence properties were studied with respect to the luminescence spectra, decay time, impact excitation, cross relaxation (Tb3+), and power efficiency. Top values of the efficiency of 0.3 % corresponding to external quantum efficiencies well above the percent range were reached. The electrical properties of these devices such as current-voltage and charge trapping characteristics, were also evaluated. Moreover, we demonstrate photo- and electroluminescence in correlation to charge trapping characteristics for Er-rich MOSLEDs with a varying silicon cluster content. Finally, application aspects to the field of biosensing will be discussed.