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Additional active ingredients are needed for use in aquatic systems in order to respond to new threats or treatment scenarios, enhance selectivity, reduce use rates, and to mitigate the risk of herbicide-resistance. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new synthetic auxin developed for use as an aquatic herbicide. A study was conducted at North Carolina State University, in which 10 µg L−1 of 25% radiolabeled florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied to the isolated shoot tissue of ten different aquatic plant species in order to elucidate absorption and translocation patterns in these species. Extremely high levels of shoot absorption were observed for all species and uptake was rapid. Highest shoot absorptions were observed for crested floatingheart [Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) Kuntze] (A192 =20 µg g−1), dioecious hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle] (A192 =25.3 µg g−1), variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophylum Michx.) (A192 =40.1 µg g−1) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) (A192 =25.3 µg g−1). Evidence of translocation was observed in all rooted species tested with the greatest translocation observed in N. cristata (1.28 µg g-1 at 192 HAT). The results of this study add to the growing body of knowledge surrounding the behavior of this newly registered herbicide within aquatic plants.
This collection of essays, by leading scholars and practitioners from a range of countries, pays homage to a pre-eminent figure in the field of intellectual property: Sam Ricketson. Inspired by the breadth of Ricketson’s work, the contributions explore issues from a perspective that looks across the field – in particular, across the regimes, jurisdictions, disciplines and professions of IP. Topics explored across the regimes include the nature of IP subject matter, overlaps in protection, historical connections between copyright and patents and the transplantation of civil law moral rights to common law copyright. In across jurisdictions, chapters address, inter alia, the application of private international law to cross-border IP disputes, the Berne Convention and AI-authored works, how countries might exit the Berne Convention and dispute settlement under TRIPS. The intersection of copyright and privacy laws, the relationship between privacy, personality and trade mark laws, the teaching of IP and human rights and the conduct of empirical and historical research in IP are among the matters considered across disciplines. Contributions across professions include the participation of scholars in IP policy making, the IP textbook in legal practice, and the role of expert evidence in IP litigation.
Using as a starting point the work of internationally-renowned Australian scholar Sam Ricketson, whose contributions to intellectual property (IP) law and practice have been extensive and richly diverse, this volume examines topical and fundamental issues from across IP law. With authors from the US, UK, Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, the book is structured in four parts, which move across IP regimes, jurisdictions, disciplines and professions, addressing issues that include what exactly is protected by IP regimes; regime differences, overlaps and transplants; copyright authorship and artificial intelligence; internationalization of IP through public and private international law; IP intersections with historical and empirical research, human rights, privacy, personality and cultural identity; IP scholars and universities, and the influence of treatises and textbooks. This work should be read by anyone interested in understanding the central issues in the evolving field of IP law.
To examine the association between cooking frequency and Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015, overall and by income, among US adults.
Cross-sectional analysis using multivariable linear regression models to examine the association between cooking frequency and total HEI-2015 score adjusted for sociodemographic variables, overall and stratified by income.
Nationally representative survey data from the USA.
Adults aged ≥20 years (with 2 d of 24 h dietary recall data) obtained from the 2007 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n 8668).
Compared with cooking dinner 0–2 times/week, greater cooking frequency was associated with higher HEI-2015 score overall (≥7 times/week: +3·57 points, P < 0·001), among lower-income adults (≥7 times/week: +2·55 points, P = 0·001) and among higher-income adults (≥7 times/week: +5·07 points, P < 0·001). Overall, total HEI-2015 score was higher among adults living in households where dinner was cooked ≥7 times/week (54·54 points) compared with adults living in households where dinner was cooked 0–2 times/week (50·57 points). In households in which dinner was cooked ≥7 times/week, total HEI-2015 score differed significantly based on income status (lower-income: 52·51 points; higher-income: 57·35 points; P = 0·003). Cooking frequency was associated with significant differences in HEI-2015 component scores, but associations varied by income.
More frequent cooking at home is associated with better diet quality overall and among lower- and higher-income adults, although the association between cooking and better diet quality is stronger among high-income adults. Strategies are needed to help lower-income Americans consume a healthy diet regardless of how frequently they cook at home.
The Battelle Critical Care Decontamination System™ (CCDS™) decontaminates N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) using vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) for reuse when there is a critical supply shortage. The Battelle CCDS received an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2020. This research focused on evaluating the mechanical properties of the straps as an indicator of respirator fit. The objective was to characterize the load generated by the straps following up to 20 don/doff and decontamination cycles in Battelle's CCDS. In general, the measured loads at 50 and 100% strains after 20 cycles were similar (±15%) to the as-received controls. Qualitatively, reductions in the load may be associated with loss of elasticity in the straps, potentially reducing the ability to obtain a proper fit. However, small changes in strap elasticity may not affect the ability to obtain a proper fit given the potential for variation in strap length and positioning on the head. Regardless, prior to reusing a N95 respirator, it is important to complete a visual inspection to ensure it is not damaged, malformed, or soiled. If so, it is recommended to discard the respirator and use a different one. Similarly, the respirator should be discarded if the wearer cannot obtain a proper fit during the user seal check.
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has expanded to include UAV sprayers capable of applying pesticides. Very little research has been conducted to optimize application parameters and measure the potential of off-target movement from UAV-based pesticide applications. Field experiments were conducted in Raleigh, NC during spring 2018 to characterize the effect of different application speeds and nozzle types on target area coverage and uniformity of UAV applications. The highest coverage was achieved with an application speed of 1 m s−1 and ranged from 30% to 60%, whereas applications at 7 m s−1 yielded 13% to 22% coverage. Coverage consistently decreased as application speed increased across all nozzles, with extended-range flat-spray nozzles declining at a faster rate than air-induction nozzles, likely due to higher drift. Experiments measuring the drift potential of UAV-applied pesticides using extended-range flat spray, air-induction flat-spray, turbo air–induction flat-spray, and hollow-cone nozzles under 0, 2, 4, 7, and 9 m s−1 perpendicular wind conditions in the immediate 1.75 m above the target were conducted in the absence of natural wind. Off-target movement was observed under all perpendicular wind conditions with all nozzles tested but was nondetectable beyond 5 m away from the target. Coverage from all nozzles exhibited a concave-shaped curve in response to the increasing perpendicular wind speed due to turbulence. The maximum target coverage in drift studies was observed when the perpendicular wind was 0 and 8.94 m s−1, but higher turbulence at the two highest perpendicular wind speeds (6.71 and 8.94 m s−1) increased coverage variability, whereas the lowest variability was observed at 2.24 m s−1 wind speed. Results suggested that air-induction flat-spray and turbo air–induction flat-spray nozzles and an application speed of 3 m s−1 provided an adequate coverage of target areas while minimizing off-target movement risk.
Early in a foodborne disease outbreak investigation, illness incubation periods can help focus case interviews, case definitions, clinical and environmental evaluations and predict an aetiology. Data describing incubation periods are limited. We examined foodborne disease outbreaks from laboratory-confirmed, single aetiology, enteric bacterial and viral pathogens reported to United States foodborne disease outbreak surveillance from 1998–2013. We grouped pathogens by clinical presentation and analysed the reported median incubation period among all illnesses from the implicated pathogen for each outbreak as the outbreak incubation period. Outbreaks from preformed bacterial toxins (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens) had the shortest outbreak incubation periods (4–10 h medians), distinct from that of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (17 h median). Norovirus, salmonella and shigella had longer but similar outbreak incubation periods (32–45 h medians); campylobacter and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli had the longest among bacteria (62–87 h medians); hepatitis A had the longest overall (672 h median). Our results can help guide diagnostic and investigative strategies early in an outbreak investigation to suggest or rule out specific etiologies or, when the pathogen is known, the likely timeframe for exposure. They also point to possible differences in pathogenesis among pathogens causing broadly similar syndromes.
The stellar winds of hot stars have an important impact on both stellar and galactic evolution, yet their structure and internal processes are not fully understood in detail. One of the best nearby laboratories for studying such massive stellar winds is the O4I(n)fp star ζ Pup. After briefly discussing existing X-ray observations from Chandra and XMM, we present a simulation of X-ray emission line profile measurements for the upcoming 840 kilosecond Chandra HETGS observation. This simulation indicates that the increased S/N of this new observation will allow several major steps forward in the understanding of massive stellar winds. By measuring X-ray emission line strengths and profiles, we should be able to differentiate between various stellar wind models and map the entire wind structure in temperature and density. This legacy X-ray spectrum of ζ Pup will be a useful benchmark for future X-ray missions.
Background: EMBRACE (NCT02462759) Part 1 is a randomized, double-blind, sham-procedure controlled study assessing safety/tolerability of intrathecal nusinersen (12-mg equivalent dose) in symptomatic infants/children with SMA who were not eligible to participate in ENDEAR or CHERISH. Methods: Eligible participants had onset of SMA symptoms at ≤6 months with 3 SMN2 copies; onset at ≤6 months, age >7 months and 2 copies; or onset at >6 months, age ≤18 months, and 2/3 copies. Safety/tolerability was the primary endpoint. Exploratory endpoints included Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination Section 2 (HINE-2) motor milestone attainment, change in ventilator use, and growth. Results: EMBRACE Part 1 was terminated early based on positive results from ENDEAR. Safety/tolerability was similar to previous trials. More nusinersen-treated (11/14;79%) vs. sham–treated individuals (2/7;29%) were HINE-2 motor milestone responders. Between Day 183 and 302, mean (SD) hours of ventilator use changed by +1.236 (3.712) hours in nusinersen-treated (n=12) and +2.123 (3.023) hours in sham–treated individuals (n=7). Similar increases in weight and body length were observed in nusinersen-treated and sham–treated individuals by Day 183. Conclusions: In EMBRACE Part 1, nusinersen demonstrated a favorable benefit-risk profile. These results add to the aggregated efficacy, safety/tolerability data of nusinersen in SMA.