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The aetiology of parenteral nutrition-associated hepatic injury remains unresolved. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of structured triglycerides in parenteral nutrition compared either to a physical medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)/long-chain triglcerides (LCT) mixture or to a LCT emulsion on hepatic integrity.
In a randomized, double-blinded trial, we studied 45 patients undergoing abdominal surgery, who were expected to receive parenteral nutrition for 5 days. Patients were allocated to one of three nutrition regimens: Group A (n = 15) received structured triglycerides, Group B (n = 15) a MCT/LCT and Group C (n = 15) a LCT lipid emulsion. Before the start of parenteral nutrition (T0), 24 h (T1), 48 h (T2), 72 h (T3) and 120 h (T4) after start of infusion the following parameters were measured: Alpha-glutathione S-transferase (α-GST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose and serum triglycerides.
At T3 and T4, α-GST levels were significantly higher in Group B (T3: 9.4 ± 9.9; T4: 14.6 ± 19.5 μg L−1) and Group C (T3: 14.2 ± 20.8; T4: 22.4 ± 39.3 μg L−1) compared with the patients receiving structured triglycerides (T3: 1.9 ± 1.8; T4: 3.2 ± 2.7 μg L−1). Whereas the mean α-GST-levels in structured triglycerides group always remained in the normal range, this was not the case in both other groups at T3 and T4. There were no significant differences concerning ALT, AST and glucose levels. At T3 and T4, triglyceride levels were significantly lower in Group A than in Groups B and C.
Hepatic integrity was well retained with the administration of structured triglycerides, whereas both MCT/LCT emulsion and LCT emulsion caused subclinical hepatic injury.
Background and objective: This randomized, prospective study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a subcutaneous local anaesthetic infiltration prior to venepuncture using different cannula sizes.
Methods: Three-hundred-and-one patients were included in the study, 150 received mepivacaine 1% (0.25 mL) subcutaneously, 151 were cannulated without local analgesia. Patients were further allocated to one of five cannula size groups (standard wire gauge (G)): 20-, 18-, 17-, 16- and 14-G. They were asked to quantify the pain experienced using a four-point rating scale.
Results: In the group without local anaesthetics, 28.8% complained about pain compared to 12% receiving local analgesia. The incidence of pain for 14-G (10%) and 16-G (12.9%) cannulae was significantly reduced in the local analgesia group (P < 0.01) compared to no local analgesia (77.4% and 45.1%). Other cannula sizes showed no difference in pain whether using local analgesia or not.
Conclusions: Patients profit from a subcutaneous infiltration with mepivacaine 1% prior to intravenous cathetherization only when cannulae of size ≥16-G are inserted.
Background and objective: Controlled hypotension may alter organ blood flow and tissue oxygenation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether induced hypotension using sodium nitroprusside alters pancreatic function assessed by pancreatitis-associated protein concentrations in the blood.
Methods: Thirty patients undergoing elective radical prostatectomy were allocated randomly into two groups: (a) hypotension group: sodium nitroprusside was administered to lower mean arterial pressure to approximately 50 mmHg; (b) control group: no hypotension was used, mean arterial pressure was kept >70 mmHg. Pancreatitis-associated protein and lipase were measured in arterial blood samples: after induction of anaesthesia (T1), at the end of surgery (T2), 2 h (T3) and 24 h (T4) postoperatively.
Results: Pancreatitis-associated protein plasma concentrations increased significantly in patients in the hypotensive group (from 2.8 ± 1.1 to 5.5 ± 2.0 µg L−1 at T4) and pancreatitis-associated protein plasma concentrations were significantly higher in comparison with controls (5.5 ± 2.0 versus 3.5 ± 2.4 µg L−1) at T4. Lipase concentrations showed a similar course in both groups. None of the patients showed clinical signs of pancreatitis.
Conclusions: Controlled hypotension during surgery was associated with a small but significant increase in pancreatitis-associated protein compared with controls. The absence of concomitant elevation in lipase concentrations and a lack of clinical evidence of pancreatitis damage suggest that hypotension induces mild pancreatic stress.
Background and objective In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we compared the efficacy of dolasetron and metoclopramide in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing hysterectomy.
Methods Patients were allocated randomly to one of three groups: group A (n =50) received 50 mg dolasetron orally, group B (n =50) received 20 mg metoclopramide intravenously and placebo orally, group C (n =50) received placebo orally. If patients complained of retching or vomiting, or if patients demanded an antiemetic, 1.25 mg droperidol was administrated intravenously. To quantify postoperative nausea and vomiting the following score was used: 0 =no nausea, 1 =nausea, 2 =retching, 3 =single vomiting, 4 =multiple vomiting. The Raatz test was used to analyse postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) scores.
Results Dolasetron reduced the postoperative nausea and vomiting score significantly (P <0.02 vs. metoclopramide; P <0.0001 vs. placebo). Metoclopramide also reduced the postoperative nausea and vomiting score (P <0.02 vs. placebo). Fisher's exact test showed a significant reduction of vomiting in the dolasetron group compared with metoclo-pramide-treated patients (P <0.007) and placebo-treated patients (P <0.000006) and a significantly lower rate of nausea in comparison to the placebo group (P <0.009). There were no significant differences between the metoclopramide and the placebo groups (in Fisher's exact test). The use of postoperative droperidol per patient was significantly lower in the dolasetron group (P <0.04 vs. metoclopramide; P <0.0001 vs. placebo) than in the metoclopramide (P <0.02 vs. placebo) and in the placebo groups.
Conclusions Oral dolasetron is more effective than either metoclopramide given intravenously or placebo for preventing vomiting after hysterectomy. It also was significantly superior to either metoclopramide or placebo concerning the PONV score and the need for droperidol rescue.
Transillumination-guided intubation is a useful back-up method when laryngoscopic intubation proves to be difficult or impossible. The Trachlight™ (Laerdal, N-4001 Stavanger, Norway) is suited for both nasal and oral use. Intubation times (intubation time) and success rates (success rate) for nasal and oral intubation with the Trachlight were compared.
Twenty-four medical students, inexperienced in intubation were instructed in the use of the Trachlight. A demonstration also was performed. Subsequently, they were asked to intubate a Laerdal Airway Management Trainer™ (Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway) using the Trachlight. Each student intubated 10 times orally and 10 times nasally (five times through the right and five times through the left nostril). The succession of the students was randomized The intubation times were measured and the position of the tube noted. Nasal and oral intubation times for the tenth trial (steady state conditions) were compared using the rank-order test for paired observations. Oral and nasal success rates were compared using the sign test for paired observations.
The differences between nasal and oral intubation concerning intubation time and the success rates were not significant. Nasal intubation with the Trachlight seems to be more difficult than the oral intubation.