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Visitors to zoos are a source of potential stress to certain captive-housed animals. Much research has focused on Europe and America, whereas the effect of human audiences on the behaviour of captive animals in Chinese parks has so far not been investigated. Sika deer (Cervus nippon) housed in Zhu-Yu-Wan Park, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China, were studied to determine the effect of different visitor density levels on the animals’ activity. From June 21 to December 10, 2006, and again from February 21 to July 10, 2007, 21 subjects were observed for 10 h per week for a total of 44 weeks. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify behaviours, and visitor density was recorded every minute. Friedman's tests were used to examine the effects of visitor density on the behaviour of sika deer. Results showed that high visitor density was significantly related to foraging, resting, watching and ‘non-visible’ behaviours. The findings demonstrate that high numbers of visitors have an effect on the welfare of sika deer.
Dietary fibre modulates gastrointestinal (GI) health and function, providing laxation, shifting microbiota, and altering bile acid (BA) metabolism. Fruit juice production removes the polyphenol- and fibre-rich pomace fraction. The effects of orange and apple pomaces on GI outcomes were investigated in healthy, free-living adults. Healthy adults were enrolled in two double-blinded, crossover trials, being randomised by baseline bowel movement (BM) frequency. In the first trial, subjects (n 91) received orange juice (OJ, 0 g fibre/d) or OJ + orange pomace (OJ + P, 10 g fibre/d) for 4 weeks, separated by a 3-week washout. Similarly, in the second trial, subjects (n 90) received apple juice (AJ, 0 g fibre/d) or AJ + apple pomace (AJ + P, 10 g fibre/d). Bowel habit diaries, GI tolerance surveys and 3-d diet records were collected throughout. Fresh faecal samples were collected from a participant subset for microbiota and BA analyses in each study. Neither pomace interventions influenced BM frequency. At Week 4, OJ + P tended to increase (P = 0·066) GI symptom occurrence compared with OJ, while AJ + P tended (P = 0·089) to increase flatulence compared with AJ. Faecalibacterium (P = 0·038) and Negativibacillus (P = 0·043) were differentially abundant between pre- and post-interventions in the apple trial but were no longer significant after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Baseline fibre intake was independently associated with several microbial genera in both trials. Orange or apple pomace supplementation was insufficient to elicit changes in bowel habits, microbiota diversity or BA of free-living adults with healthy baseline BM. Future studies should consider baseline BM frequency and habitual fibre intake.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
The 14C peak in AD 775 (M12) has been measured and confirmed globally in several studies since it was first measured in annual tree rings by Miyake et al. (2012). However, M12 data measurements in early- and latewood are limited. This paper presents the Δ14C values in early- and latewood from AD 762–776 Zelkova serrata tree rings from Bangu-dong, Ulsan, South Korea (35°33′N, 129°20′E). The results indicate no early rise in Δ14C values in the latewood of AD 774 in this sample located at mid-latitude. A comparison of the results of this and previous studies suggests latitude dependence (Büntgen et al. 2018); that is, the early rise of Δ14C in AD 774 was not observed at mid-latitudes in South Korea but was observed at high latitudes in Finland. The half-oxidation time of 14C was estimated from a detailed analysis of a small bomb peak in AD 1962. Based on the half-oxidation time, the Δ14C rise in the latewood, but not in the earlywood, of AD 774 in Finland, and the absence of a Δ14C rise in both the early- and latewood of AD 774 in South Korea, the 14C spike was estimated to have been produced from late April to mid-June in AD 774.
Available data suggest that sex hormone levels during puberty may affect symptom onset and expression, treatment responsiveness and outcomes in schizophrenia, whereas post-pubertal adolescents may have a similar clinical presentation and treatment response compared to adults with schizophrenia.
Post-hoc analyses were conducted to assess the similarity of short- and long-term efficacy between post-pubertal adolescents and adults with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole.
Based on available European epidemiologic data, a cut-off age of 15 years was used to isolate a subgroup of mostly post-pubertal adolescents with schizophrenia in aripiprazole clinical studies. Outcome measures from this subgroup (ages 15-17; n=147) were then compared to outcomes from one adult study (n=853) on short and long-term measures of efficacy, including PANSS scores, response rates, and remission rates.
Comparable short and long-term treatment effects were observed on the PANSS total and subscale scores, demonstrated by overlapping 95% confidence intervals (mean change from baseline in PANSS total score (OC dataset): at week 6 in adults: -27,7; in adolescents 15-17 yr: -29,6; at week 30 in adults: -39,2; in adolescents 15-17 yr: -36). Percent of adolescents achieving response (defined as ≥ 30% decrease in PANSS total score from baseline) at 32 weeks (80,2%) on open label treatment was similar to that in adult studies at week 34 (80%) on double blind treatment (OC dataset).
Adolescents with schizophrenia (ages 15-17, mostly post-pubertal) demonstrate a positive treatment response in short-term and long-term studies which is similar to that observed in the adult patient population.
Evaluate the safety and tolerability of aripiprazole once-monthly (ARI-OM) initiation in patients stabilized on oral antipsychotics other than aripiprazole. Previous pivotal Phase III trials have evaluated initiating ARI-OM in patients stabilized on oral aripiprazole1.
Eligible patients were treated with oral atypical antipsychotics other than aripiprazole with a history of oral aripiprazole tolerability. The study included a screening phase (30 days) and a treatment phase (28 days). Patients were stabilized per investigator's judgment for ≥14 days on risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or ziprasidone, before administration of ARI-OM (400 mg). Current oral antipsychotic was co-administered with ARI-OM for 2 weeks to determine safety and tolerability of a single ARI-OM dose following treatment initiation. Safety assessments were adverse events (AEs); extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) using standard objective rating scales; Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale; clinical laboratory measures; and weight changes.
60 patients initiated ARI-OM, while continuing treatment for ≤2 weeks with oral risperidone (n=24), quetiapine (n=28), ziprasidone (n=5) or olanzapine (n=3). Treatment-emergent (TE) AEs (≥5%) were fatigue, injection-site pain, and restlessness (risperidone); insomnia, dystonia, injection-site pain, and toothache (quetiapine); and muscle spasm, tooth abscess, and toothache (ziprasidone). Prior olanzapine did not cause any AEs. Incidence of TE-EPSs were similar in all groups (< 5%). There were no unusual changes in objective EPS rating scales, suicidality, weight, laboratory values or fasting metabolic parameters across all groups.
The AE profile of patients receiving ARI-OM concomitant with oral atypical antipsychotics other than aripiprazole was consistent with prior reports1.
We aimed to identify the association of hydration status with insulin resistance (IR) and body fat distribution. A total of 14 344 adults participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010. We used urine specific gravity (USG) to indicate hydration status, and HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment of IR) and trunk:leg fat ratio (TLR) as primary outcomes. In multivariate logistic regression, the OR per 0·01 increase in USG for high IR was 1·303 (95 % CI 1·185, 1·433; P < 0·001). In multivariate generalised additive model plots, increased USG showed a J-shaped association with logarithmic HOMA-IR, with the lowest Akaike’s information criterion score of USG 1·030. Moreover, increased USG was independently associated with increased trunk fat, decreased leg fat and increased TLR. In mediation analysis, the proportion of mediation effects of USG on TLR via IR was 0·193 (95 % CI 0·132, 0·285; P < 0·001), while the proportion of mediation effects of USG on IR via TLR was 0·130 (95 % CI 0·086, 0·188; P < 0·001). Increased USG, a sign of low hydration status and presumably high vasopressin, was associated with IR and poor fat distribution. Direct effect of low hydration status may be more dominant than indirect effect via IR or fat distribution. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Triploid and pentaploid breeding is of great importance in agricultural production, but it is not always easy to obtain double ploidy parents. However, in fishes, chromosome ploidy is diversiform, which may provide natural parental resources for triploid and pentaploid breeding. Both tetraploid and hexaploid exist in Schizothorax fishes, which were thought to belong to different subfamilies with tetraploid Percocypris fishes in morphology, but they are sister genera in molecule. Fortunately, the pentaploid hybrid fishes have been successfully obtained by hybridization of Schizothorax wangchiachii (♀, 2n = 6X = 148) × Percocypris pingi (♂, 2n = 4X = 98). To understand the genetic and morphological difference among the hybrid fishes and their parents, four methods were used in this study: morphology, karyotype, red blood cell (RBC) DNA content determination and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In morphology, the hybrid fishes were steady, and between their parents with no obvious preference. The chromosome numbers of P. pingi have been reported as 2n = 4X = 98. In this study, the karyotype of S. wangchiachii was 2n = 6X = 148 = 36m + 34sm + 12st + 66t, while that the hybrid fishes was 2n = 5X = 123 = 39m + 28sm + 5st + 51t. Similarly, the RBC DNA content of the hybrid fishes was intermediate among their parents. In ISSR, the within-group genetic diversity of hybrid fishes was higher than that of their parents. Moreover, the genetic distance of hybrid fishes between P. pingi and S.wangchiachii was closely related to that of their parental ploidy, suggesting that parental genetic material stably coexisted in the hybrid fishes. This is the first report to show a stable pentaploid F1 hybrids produced by hybridization of a hexaploid and a tetraploid in aquaculture.
Feeding ruminants a high-grain (HG) diet is a widely used strategy to improve milk yield and cost efficiency. However, it may cause certain metabolic disorders. At present, information about the effects of HG diets on the systemic metabolic profile of goats and the correlation of such diets with rumen bacteria is limited. In the present study, goats were randomly divided into two groups: one was fed the hay diet (hay; n = 5), while the other was fed HG diets (HG; n = 5). On day 50, samples of rumen contents, peripheral blood serum and liver tissues were collected to determine the metabolic profiles in the rumen fluid, liver and serum and the microbial composition in rumen. The results revealed that HG diets reduced (P < 0.05) the community richness and diversity of rumen microbiota, with an increase in the Chao 1 and Shannon index and a decrease in the Simpson index. HG diets also altered the composition of rumen microbiota, with 30 genera affected (P < 0.05). Data on the metabolome showed that the metabolites in the rumen fluid, liver and serum were affected (variable importance projection > 1, P <0.05) by dietary treatment, with 47, 10 and 27 metabolites identified as differentially metabolites. Pathway analysis showed that the common metabolites in the shared key pathway (aminoacyl-transfer RNA biosynthesis) in the rumen fluid, liver and serum were glycine, lysine and valine. These findings suggested that HG diets changed the composition of the rumen microbiota and metabolites in the rumen fluid, liver and serum, mainly involved in amino acid metabolism. Our findings provide new insights into the understanding of diet-related systemic metabolism and the effects of HG diets on the overall health of goats.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (P<0.05) rumen pH but higher (P<0.05) total volatile fatty acids and lactate in the rumen and higher (P<0.05) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in the rumen and blood. HG diet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (P<0.05) the expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and MMP-2 mRNA in the lamellar tissues compared with the hay group. Correlation analysis indicated that the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were positively correlated with MMP-2 expression in lamellar tissues. Overall, these results revealed that HG feeding altered the patterns of rumen fermentation and the composition and functions of rumen bacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.
High order total variation (TV2) and ℓ1 based (TV2L1) model has its advantage over the TVL1 for its ability in avoiding the staircase; and a constrained model has the advantage over its unconstrained counterpart for simplicity in estimating the parameters. In this paper, we consider solving the TV2L1 based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal reconstruction problem by an efficient alternating direction method of multipliers. By sufficiently utilizing the problem's special structure, we manage to make all subproblems either possess closed-form solutions or can be solved via Fast Fourier Transforms, which makes the cost per iteration very low. Experimental results for MRI reconstruction are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the new model and algorithm. Comparisons with its recent unconstrained counterpart are also reported.
Varicella–zoster virus (VZV) infection (chickenpox) results in latency and subsequent reactivation manifests as shingles. Effective attenuated vaccines (vOka) are available for prevention of both illnesses. In this study, an amplicon-based sequencing method capable of differentiating between VZV wild-type (wt) strains and vOka vaccine is described. A total of 44 vesicular fluid specimens collected from 43 patients (16 from China and 27 from the UK) with either chickenpox or shingles were investigated, of which 10 had received previous vaccination. Four sets of polymerase chain reactions were set up simultaneously with primers amplifying regions encompassing four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), ‘69349-106262-107252-108111’. Nucleotide sequences were generated by Sanger sequencing. All samples except one had a wt SNP profile of ‘A-T-T-T’. The sample collected from a patient who received vaccine 7–10 days ago, along with VZV vaccine preparations, Zostavax and Baike-varicella gave a SNP profile ‘G-C-C-C’. The results show that this method can distinguish vaccine-derived virus from wt viruses from main four clades, (clades 1–4) and should be of utility worldwide.
Accurate prediction of the flow around multi-element airfoil is a prerequisite for improving aerodynamic performance, but its complex flow features impose high demands on turbulence modeling. In this work, delayed detached-eddy-simulation (DDES) and zonal detached-eddy-simulation (ZDES) was applied to simulate the flow past a three-element airfoil. To investigate the effects of numerical dissipation of spatial schemes, the third-order MUSCL and the fifth-order interpolation based on modified Roe scheme were implemented. From the comparisons between the calculations and the available experimental result, third-order MUSCL-Roe can provide satisfactory mean velocity profiles, but the excessive dissipation suppresses the velocity fluctuations level and eliminates the small-scale structures; DDES cannot reproduce the separation near the trailing edge of the flap which lead to the discrepancy in mean pressure coefficients, while ZDES result has better tally with the experiment.