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The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
We analyse the evolution with redshift of the radial gradient of oxygen abundances in spiral disks resulting from our MULCHEM chemical evolution models, computed for galaxies of different sizes or masses, studying the relationships between the gradients and galaxy characteristics as the stellar mass, the size, the gas fraction or the star formation rate for z < 4.
Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is a synthetic wide band gap material that has attracted attention due to its high thermal conductivity, optical transparency and optical emission. In this work, defects in cBN have been investigated using experimental and theoretical X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Vacancy and O substitutional defects were considered, with O substituted at the N site (ON) to be the most energetically favorable. All defects produce unique signatures in either the B or N K-edges and can thus be identified using XANES. The calculations coupled with electron-irradiation / annealing experiments strongly suggest that ON is the dominant defect in irradiated cBN and remains after annealing. This defect is a likely source of optical emission in cBN.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Background: The International Psychogeriatric Association Task Force on Mental Health Services in Long-Term Care Facilities aims to support and strengthen mental health services in the long-term care sector. The purpose of this paper is to identify broad principles that may underpin the drive towards meeting the mental health needs of residents of long-term care facilities and their families, as well as to enhance the overall delivery of residential care services.
Methods: Principles of good care are extrapolated from an analysis of international consensus documents and existing guidelines and discussed in relation to the research and practice literature.
Results: Although the attention to principles is limited, this review reveals an emerging consensus that: (1) residential care should be situated within a continuum of services which are accessible on the basis of need; (2) there should be an explicit focus on quality of care in long-term care facilities; and (3) quality of life for the residents of these facilities should be a primary objective. We take a broad perspective on the challenges associated with actualizing each of these principles, taking into consideration key issues for families, facilities, systems and societies.
Conclusions: Recommendations for practice, policy and advocacy to establish an internationally endorsed principles-based framework for the evolution and development of good mental health care within long-term care facilities are provided.
The alpha-decay of plutonium leads to the age-related change in physical properties. This paper presents updated results of age-related effects on enriched and reference alloys measured from immersion density, dilatometry, and mechanical tests. After nearly 100 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys are decreasing in density by less than 0.002% per year and now exhibit a near linear density decrease, without void swelling. The tensile tests show that the aging process increases the strength of plutonium alloys, followed by possible saturation past 70 equivalent years of age. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop capabilities to predict physical properties changed by aging effects.
The pressure dependence of the hidden order phase of the heavy fermion superconductor URu2Si2 has been a subject of intense research since shortly after the discovery of the compound decades ago. Applied pressure increases the critical temperature of the paramagnetic / hidden order transition and brings about a transition to long-range antiferromagnetism. The reported pressures and temperatures of these phase boundaries vary between studies: 4 – 7 kbar at low temperature and 12 – 15 kbar at high temperature. We review experimental evidence that the measured values of pressure and temperature are very sensitive to the chosen pressure transmitting medium. Recent x-ray diffraction measurements suggest that the relative position of the silicon atom in the unit cell is changing as a function of pressure. Recent neutron diffraction measurements show that the zero-temperature limit of the hidden order / antiferromagnetic transition occurs at pressures greater than 7.5 kbar.
A material subjected to radiation damage will usually experience changes in its physical properties. Measuring these changes in the physical properties provides a basis to study radiation damage in a material which is important for a variety of real world applications from reactor materials to semiconducting devices. When investigating radiation damage, the relative sensitivity of any given property can vary considerably based on the concentration and type of damage present as well as external parameters such as the temperature and starting material composition. By measuring multiple physical properties, these differing sensitivities can be leveraged to provide greater insight into the different aspects of radiation damage accumulation, thereby providing a broader understanding of the mechanisms involved. In this report, self-damage from α-particle decay in Pu is investigated by measuring two different properties: magnetic susceptibility and resistivity. The results suggest that while the first annealing stage obeys second order chemical kinetics, the primary mechanism is not the recombination of vacancy-interstitial close pairs.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to characterize a sample of UO2 grown on an underlying substrate of Uranium. Both AlKα (1487 eV) and MgKα (1254 eV) emission were utilized as the excitation.
Salivarian trypanosomes pose a substantial threat to livestock, but their full diversity is not known. To survey trypanosomes carried by tsetse in Tanzania, DNA samples from infected proboscides of Glossina pallidipes and G. swynnertoni were identified using fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB), which discriminates species by size polymorphisms in multiple regions of the ribosomal RNA locus. FFLB identified the trypanosomes in 65 of 105 (61·9%) infected proboscides, revealing 9 mixed infections. Of 7 different FFLB profiles, 2 were similar but not identical to reference West African Trypanosoma vivax; 5 other profiles belonged to known species also identified in fly midguts. Phylogenetic analysis of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase gene revealed that the Tanzanian T. vivax samples fell into 2 distinct groups, both outside the main clade of African and South American T. vivax. These new T. vivax genotypes were common and widespread in tsetse in Tanzania. The T. brucei-like trypanosome previously described from tsetse midguts was also found in 2 proboscides, demonstrating a salivarian transmission route. Investigation of mammalian host range and pathogenicity will reveal the importance of these new trypanosomes for the epidemiology and control of animal trypanosomiasis in East Africa.
Nanodiamonds (NDs) have desirable chemical, physical and biological properties that lend them to a wide range of applications. ND’s facile surface chemistry, for example, can be used to create a high affinity for adsorbing various biological molecules. However, NDs, which are commercially available from multiple vendors, show inconsistencies with surface groups, aggregate sizes and impurity contents that may limit adsorption. We explore adsorption mechanisms of molecules to NDs in efforts to expand ND applications to drug delivery agents, bio-labels and enterosorbents. In doing so, several types of NDs and modification methods are evaluated to increase adsorption capacity and selectivity of propidium iodide and aflatoxin B1. Capacities and binding strengths of target molecules are assessed by Langmuir isotherms and transform calculations. UV-Vis spectroscopy shows our modification treatments are successful in increasing ND adsorption capacities. Additionally, cyclic voltammetry measurements, used to monitor in-situ adsorption, show electrochemical detection even after binding.
The lectin-inhibitory sugars D-glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) are known to enhance susceptibility of the tsetse fly vector to infection with Trypanosoma brucei. GlcNAc also stimulates trypanosome growth in vitro in the absence of any factor derived from the fly. Here, we show that GlcNAc cannot be used as a direct energy source, nor is it internalized by trypanosomes. It does, however, inhibit glucose uptake by binding to the hexose transporter. Deprivation of D-glucose leads to a switch from a metabolism based predominantly on substrate level phosphorylation of D-glucose to a more efficient one based mainly on oxidative phosphorylation using L-proline. Procyclic form trypanosomes grow faster and to higher density in D-glucose-depleted medium than in D-glucose-rich medium. The ability of trypanosomes to use L-proline as an energy source can be regulated depending upon the availability of D-glucose and here we show that this regulation is a graded response to D-glucose availability and determined by the overall metabolic state of the cell. It appears, therefore, that the growth stimulatory effect of GlcNAc in vitro relates to the switch from D-glucose to L-proline metabolism. In tsetse flies, however, it seems probable that the effect of GlcNAc is independent of this switch as pre-adaptation to growth in proline had no effect on tsetse infection rate.
Photovoltaic devices based on soluble conjugated polymers have gained great interest in recent years because of the potential low cost of production and ease of fabrication. PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester), a fullerene derivative, has been extensively investigated as a solution processable electron acceptor for bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic devices blended with conjugate polymers like P3HT [poly(3-hexylthiophene)]. Here, we investigated a novel solution processable organic semiconductor, C60(CN)2, as an electron acceptor for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic applications. Optical and electrical properties of C60(CN)2 are studied and compared with PCBM. Blend devices with P3HT and C60(CN)2 have been fabricated and compared with P3HT-PCBM devices. The effect of thermal annealing on the device performance is evaluated. Open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor and total efficiency data are compared with PCBM based devices.
The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax are controversial. It is generally suggested that South American, and East and West African isolates could be classified as subspecies or species allied to T. vivax. This is the first phylogenetic study to compare South American isolates (Brazil and Venezuela) with West/East African T. vivax isolates. Phylogeny using ribosomal sequences positioned all T. vivax isolates tightly together on the periphery of the clade containing all Salivarian trypanosomes. The same branching of isolates within T. vivax clade was observed in all inferred phylogenies using different data sets of sequences (SSU, SSU plus 5.8S or whole ITS rDNA). T. vivax from Brazil, Venezuela and West Africa (Nigeria) were closely related corroborating the West African origin of South American T. vivax, whereas a large genetic distance separated these isolates from the East African isolate (Kenya) analysed. Brazilian isolates from cattle asymptomatic or showing distinct pathology were highly homogeneous. This study did not disclose significant polymorphism to separate West African and South American isolates into different species/subspecies and indicate that the complexity of T. vivax in Africa and of the whole subgenus Trypanosoma (Duttonella) might be higher than previously believed.