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Canine soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) cause important zoonoses in the tropics, with varying degrees of intensity of infection in humans and dogs. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors for STHs in community dogs residing in Grenada, West Indies. In May 2021, 232 canine fecal samples were examined for zoonotic helminths by microscopy (following flotation), and genomic DNA from a subset of 211 of these samples were subjected to multiplex qPCR for the detection and specific identification of hookworms, Toxocara spp. and Strongyloides. Microscopic examination revealed that 46.5% (108/232, 95% CI 40–52.9), 9% (21/232, 95% CI 5.35–12.7) and 5.2% (12/232, 95% CI 2.3–8) of the samples contained eggs of Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp. and Trichuris vulpis, respectively. Multiplex qPCR revealed that, 42.2% (89/211, 95% CI 35.5–48.8) were positive for at least 1 zoonotic parasite. Of these, 40.8% (86/211, 95% CI 34.1–47.3) of samples tested positive for Ancylostoma spp., 36% (76/211, 95% CI 29.5–42.9) were positive for A. caninum, 13.3% (28/211, 95% CI 9–18.6) for A. ceylanicum, 5.7% for T. canis (12/211, 95% CI 2.97–8.81) and 1% (2/211, 95% CI 0–2.26) for Strongyloides spp. (identified as S. stercoralis and S. papillosus by conventional PCR-based Sanger sequencing). Using a multiple logistic regression model, a low body score and free-roaming behaviour were significant predictors of test-positivity for these parasitic nematodes in dogs (P < 0.05). Further studies of zoonotic STHs in humans should help elucidate the public health relevance of these parasites in Grenada.
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) and Troglostrongylus brevior (Strongylida, Crenosomatidae) are regarded as important lungworm species of domestic felids, with the latter considered an emerging threat in the Mediterranean region. The present study aimed to assess their concurrent development in the mollusc Helix aspersa (Pulmonata, Helicidae). Thirty snails were infested with 100 first-stage larvae (L1) of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, isolated from a naturally infested kitten. Larval development was checked by digesting five specimens at 2, 6 and 11 days post infestation. Larvae retrieved were morphologically described and their identification was confirmed by specific PCR and sequencing. All H. aspersa snails were positive for A. abstrusus and T. brevior, whose larval stages were simultaneously detected at each time point. In addition, snails were exposed to outdoor conditions and examined after overwintering, testing positive up to 120 days post infestation. Data herein presented suggest that A. abstrusus and T. brevior develop in H. aspersa snails and may eventually co-infest cats. Data on the morphology of both parasitic species in H. aspersa provide additional information on their development and identification, to better understand the population dynamics of these lungworms in receptive snails and paratenic hosts.
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