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A retrospective study was undertaken to analyse set-up variations in patients being treated with post-operative radiation therapy for carcinoma of gall bladder by image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and paired kilovoltage beam portals (kVps).
Materials and methods
Three consecutive patients receiving post-operative radiation therapy for carcinoma of gall bladder were studied. A total of 32 imaging studies were performed. The immobilisation system was an all-in-one system along with a thermoplastic mask, with knees either resting on the knee rest or in a vacuum cushion. The CBCT scans and kVps were reviewed in an off-line mode. The surrogate markers used for matching during co-registration were 12th rib, coeliac trunk, vertebral bodies and canal. Individual readings were used to calculate mean shifts (m); the mean of these means (M) was calculated to arrive at the systematic error in each direction and its standard deviation (Σ) was calculated. The margins for set-up error (SM) were then calculated.
There were a total of 32 readings of which 21 were CBCTs and 11 were kVps. The mean shifts in each direction for each patient were 0·06, 0·25 and 0·15 cm in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions, respectively. The resultant planning target volume margins calculated were 0·24, 0·9 and 0·47 cm in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions.
IGRT for upper abdominal malignancies using CBCT and kVps is a useful method to keep the margins for set-up error low. The use of surrogates for matching should be relevant to the target volume. Good immobilisation system helps in keeping the margins low.
This chapter focuses on current practice, as informed by past experiences and as a basis for understanding newer therapeutics on the horizon. Long-term survival of allograft in humans first occurred with the introduction of azathioprine (AZA). Early use of cyclosporine (CyA) in animals and humans as monotherapy seemed effective in preventing acute rejection crises. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was a new modified preparation of an older agent that enhanced its absorption and stability. Maintenance immunosuppression is the long-term therapy required to ensure allograft survival, administered with the dual intentions of avoiding both immunological injury and drug-related toxicity. Discovery of new agents is informed by our evolving understanding of how immunological processes injure allograft, with substantial attention now being devoted to antibody-mediated injury and lymphoid tissue of B-cell lineage. It is now common to use biologics, such as polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, for a short time as induction of acute rejection.
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