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Successful cover crop (CC) establishment in the fall is important to maximize CC production, which is critical for achieving many objectives of CCs. Competition from winter weeds may reduce CC establishment and biomass production. A preplant herbicide, such as paraquat, at the time of CC planting in the fall will reduce winter weed pressure resulting in better establishment and growth. An experiment was conducted between 2019-2021 to test this hypothesis by evaluating a no CC check, cereal rye, hairy vetch, crimson clover, and cereal rye + hairy vetch drilled with and without paraquat applied at planting (mid-October to mid-November) following either a corn or soybean crop. Visible weed suppression ratings were collected in mid-April and total CC and weed biomass was collected in late April. More CC biomass was accumulated following corn than soybean, regardless of preplant herbicide application because corn is typically harvested before soybeans. Therefore, CC should be planted early to accumulate more biomass. Weed suppression varied by weed species from all factors, but in general weed suppression was best from CC mixture containing cereal rye and paraquat applied at planting. If weed suppression is the main goal of the CC, then a preplant herbicide at CC planting is recommended. However, if CC weed suppression goals can be achieved through biomass accumulation, no preplant herbicide is needed. This information is useful for producers to achieve various CC objectives while managing costs.
In this paper, a truncated patch antenna based on the electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure has been proposed. The fabricated antenna has five operating frequencies at 10.4, 15.68, 19.68, 27.2, and 35.04 GHz. The fabricated prototype of the antenna constitutes a truncated rectangular patch etched with the shape of a symmetrical slot (on top) and an EBG loaded on the ground plane of the dielectric substrate. The optimized volume of the antenna is 20 × 15 × 1.57 mm3. The proposed antenna gives a good radiation pattern for the E-H field in all covered bandwidth and also achieved better performances related to the reference papers. A multiband antenna also covered the 5 G bandwidth, which resonates at 27.2 GHz from 24.2 GHz to 27.84 GHz bandwidth and at 35.04 GHz from 33.84 GHz to 36.2 GHz bandwidth, which can be used in the Internet of Medical Things. On the other hand, X/Ku/K frequency bands have been committed for wireless communication where the multiband antenna can be used to help in monitoring, especially in the case of data transmission from radio frequency sensors to health-care system in real-time applications.
The single largest contributor to human mortality is cardiovascular disease, the top risk factor for which is hypertension (HTN). The last two decades have placed much emphasis on the identification of genetic factors contributing to HTN. As a result, over 1,500 genetic alleles have been associated with human HTN. Mapping studies using genetic models of HTN have yielded hundreds of blood pressure (BP) loci but their individual effects on BP are minor, which limits opportunities to target them in the clinic. The value of collecting genome-wide association data is evident in ongoing research, which is beginning to utilize these data at individual-level genetic disparities combined with artificial intelligence (AI) strategies to develop a polygenic risk score (PRS) for the prediction of HTN. However, PRS alone may or may not be sufficient to account for the incidence and progression of HTN because genetics is responsible for <30% of the risk factors influencing the etiology of HTN pathogenesis. Therefore, integrating data from other nongenetic factors influencing BP regulation will be important to enhance the power of PRS. One such factor is the composition of gut microbiota, which constitute a more recently discovered important contributor to HTN. Studies to-date have clearly demonstrated that the transition from normal BP homeostasis to a state of elevated BP is linked to compositional changes in gut microbiota and its interaction with the host. Here, we first document evidence from studies on gut dysbiosis in animal models and patients with HTN followed by a discussion on the prospects of using microbiota data to develop a metagenomic risk score (MRS) for HTN to be combined with PRS and a clinical risk score (CRS). Finally, we propose that integrating AI to learn from the combined PRS, MRS and CRS may further enhance predictive power for the susceptibility and progression of HTN.
This paper presents a planar microwave sensor for the noninvasive detection of glucose concentration in diabetic patients. The designed sensor operates from the 3.8 to 6.2 GHz frequency band, which covers the 5.8 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The designed sensor shows a percentage bandwidth of 23.8% with a reflection coefficient (S11) of −50 dB at the resonance frequency of 5.7 GHz. The detection was carried out by varying the relative permittivity of the blood in accordance with the glucose concentration based on the Cole–Cole model. The measured result is calculated in terms of varying resonance frequency with variation in the reflection coefficient |S11| of the designed sensor. The observed frequency shift and corresponding sensitivity of the sensor are found at 1.7 GHz and 0.089 MHz/mg dL−1, respectively. An experimental validation has also been performed, and the frequency shift is analyzed by interacting the human thumb with the sensor. The simulated and experimental results of the designed sensor suggest that it can be useful for detecting glucose concentration noninvasively for diabetic patients.
Bispyribac-sodium, a herbicide that inhibits acetolactate synthase (ALS), is frequently used in rice fields in India to control weeds, including the most common noxious weed, barnyardgrass. However, rice growers have recently reported reduced control of barnyardgrass with bispyribac-sodium. Hence, a large-scale survey was carried out to assess bispyribac-sodium resistance in Chhattisgarh and Kerala, two rice-growing states. Open-field pot experiments were conducted for 2 yr to confirm resistance to bispyribac-sodium. Of the 37 biotypes tested, 30% (11) survived the recommended label rate of bispyribac-sodium (25 g ai ha−1). The effective rate of bispyribac-sodium required to achieve 50% control (ED50) of putative resistant biotypes ranged from 18 to 41 g ha−1, whereas it was about 10 g ha−1 for susceptible biotypes. This suggests that putative biotypes were two to four times more resistant to bispyribac-sodium. At 6 d after herbicide application, an in vitro enzyme assay demonstrated higher ALS enzyme activity in putative resistant biotypes (66% to 75%) compared with susceptible biotypes (48% to 52%). This indicates the presence of an insensitive ALS enzyme in those biotypes and a target site mutation as a possible mechanism for resistance. Whole-plant bioassays also suggested that the resistance problem is more widespread in Chhattisgarh than in Kerala. This study confirmed the first case of evolved resistance in barnyardgrass to bispyribac-sodium in rice fields of India.
This article discusses Chaudhari Mulkiram (April 1910–August 1954) and the contesting ideologies, memories, histories, and socio-political conditions surrounding his career from the 1920s to the mid-1950s. Mulkiram belonged to the Dhangar, a sub-caste of the Khatik caste in Meerut. He was the first Dalit of the United Provinces (UP) who qualified for the Public Service Commission in 1939. This article shows his socio-religious and socio-political relations and responses to the Arya Samaj, Congress, and Scheduled Caste Federation. It reveals how the representatives of these agencies portrayed his life and work. This article also discusses how his relations and responses helped and influenced his caste members in the western UP. It argues that the Arya Samaj, Harijan Sevak Sangh, and Congress used the first generation of Dalit civil servants like Mulkiram to cultivate local leaders and to mobilize local Dalits, peasants, labourers, and villagers to act in their political interests against Ambedkar’s movement. Hence, in the 1940s and early 1950s, Mulkiram presented himself as a Gandhi bhakt, Jan Neta (public leader), and Sanyasi (household monk and socio-religious reformer).
This work represents a circularly polarized implantable patch antenna operating at the ISM band (2.4–2.48 GHz) for biomedical applications. The presented patch antenna has a compact volume of 50 mm3 i.e., 10 × 10 × 0.5 mm3. All the Simulations have been carried out within homogeneous skin phantom and head scalp phantom. Miniaturization of antenna and enhancement of bandwidth is achieved by using various techniques described in this work. The designed patch antenna has wide axial ratio bandwidth of 20.08 and 15.44% inside scalp phantom and homogeneous skin phantom, respectively. Obtained impedance bandwidths are 56.79 and 49.75% inside scalp phantom and homogeneous skin phantom, respectively. At 2.45 GHz, obtained peak gains are −25.18 and −28.12 dB, respectively. The proposed antenna is enclosed in a biocompatible material to avoid direct contact with the human tissue. For patient safety concerns, simulated maximum specific absorption ratio values are also investigated and are under the limits of the IEEE standard. The allowable input power is also calculated in this work. Link budget analysis is used in this work to determine the far-field communication range of the designed antenna.
Impaired trust in other humans is commonly seen in psychosis and it leads to poor societal functioning. However, examining trust behavior in an experimental setting is challenging. Investigators have used the trust game, a neuro-economic game to assess trust behavior in psychosis. However, the findings are inconsistent. Hence, we systematically reviewed the existing literature and conducted a meta-analysis to examine trust behavior in patients with psychosis, their relatives, and those at high risk for psychosis.
We searched electronic databases for studies that have examined trust game in patients with psychosis, published up to November 2021. The primary outcome measure was the baseline trust in a trust game by patients and controls. The meta-analysis was performed if at least three data sets of control and patient groups were available for that measure/design. We conducted meta-analyses with a random-effects model. The results were described narratively wherever meta-analysis was not possible due to paucity of studies.
The searches across the databases including cross-references yielded 465 publications of which 10 studies were included in the final analysis. Baseline trust in the trust game was significantly lower in patients with psychosis compared to controls (SMD 0.39, 95% CI −0.14 to 0.64, p −0.002). However, a similar decrease in baseline trust was not present in relatives of patients (SMD 0.08, 95% CI −0.20 to 0.36, p −0.58).
The current meta-analysis suggests significant trust deficits in patients with psychosis. Future studies with a bigger sample size are required to understand the nature of trust deficits and factors affecting this impairment.
Megalithic cultures of central India provide important links between the southern Neolithic-Chalcolithic cultures and the early Historical period (∼500 BC to ∼AD 700) and reveal knowledge of ancient traditions of early inhabitants. Scientific dating of these Megalithic burial sites is a challenging task due to scarcity of dateable material and alterations. Here, we present multiple accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dates from equine tooth-enamel and organic food remains recovered from pots from Megalithic burials of the Vidarbha region. Using δ13CTOC and δ15N values of organic food remains recovered from pots, we deduced past-diet (palaeo-vegetation) that indicates C4 type of vegetation and thus arid climate during life-spans of these burials. We also analyzed stable δ13C and δ18O isotopes of equine tooth-enamel to investigate hydro-climatic conditions of Maharashtra (Vidarbha region). A total of 10 AMS 14C dates of tooth enamel provide a time range of AD 250–874 for two Megalithic burials. Two AMS 14C dates of organic food remains recovered from pots corroborated aforementioned time-range. The average δ13C and δ18O of equine tooth-enamel samples were −5.3 ± 2.1‰ and −2.9 ± 0.8‰, respectively, both significantly enriched compared to their modern counterparts (−13.7‰ ± 0.7 and −4.3‰ ± 1.1), indicating intense arid conditions in the past.
The present paper is an announcement of first absolute age dating directly on fossilized bones and teeth of the Pleistocene mammalian fauna from the Manjra valley, District Latur, Maharashtra, India. The fossilized samples were measured using the AMS facility at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. The results gave the time frame of 21,423 BP to 24,335 BP that correspond close to and the threshold of LGM and sheds important light on the palaeoecology of the area that supported diverse megafaunal species in the Upper Manjra valley. These calendar dates not only have wider significance in terms of first ever approximate chronological frame for the Pleistocene fauna in Peninsular India but also offer methodological innovations especially when the adequate bioapatite is absent in the fossilized bones and teeth from the fossil record.
Smallflower umbrella sedge is one of the most problematic weeds in direct-seeded rice in India. Bispyribac-sodium (acetolactate synthase [ALS]-inhibiting herbicide) is commonly used in rice, but growers have recently reported lack of smallflower umbrella sedge control with this herbicide. An extensive survey was carried out in two rice-growing states, Chhattisgarh and Kerala, where 53 putative bispyribac-sodium-resistant (BR) biotypes were collected. Studies were conducted to confirm resistance to bispyribac-sodium and to test the efficacy of the newly developed synthetic auxin herbicide florpyrauxifen-benzyl on putative BR biotypes. A whole-plant bioassay revealed that bispyribac-sodium is no longer effective. Of 53 putative BR biotypes, 17 biotypes survived the recommended label rate of 25 g ai ha−1. The effective bispyribac-sodium rate required to control 50% of the plants in most of the BR biotypes (ED50) ranged from 19 to 96 g ha−1, whereas it was 10 g ha−1 in a susceptible biotype. In two highly resistant biotypes, the ED50 was beyond the maximum tested rate, 200 g ha−1. This suggests 2- to >20-fold resistance in BR biotypes. An ALS enzyme activity assay suggests an altered target site as mechanism of resistance to bispyribac-sodium. This study confirms the first case of evolved resistance to bispyribac-sodium in smallflower umbrella sedge in India. However, the newly developed synthetic auxin florpyrauxifen-benzyl effectively controlled all BR biotypes at the field use rate of 31.25 g ai ha−1.
We report a familial cluster of 24 individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The index case had a travel history and spent 24 days in the house before being tested and was asymptomatic. Physical overcrowding in the house provided a favourable environment for intra-cluster infection transmission. Restriction of movement of family members due to countrywide lockdown limited the spread in community. Among the infected, only four individuals developed symptoms. The complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 was retrieved using next-generation sequencing from eight clinical samples which demonstrated a 99.99% similarity with reference to Wuhan strain and the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a distinct cluster, lying in the B.6.6 pangolin lineage.
Human–carnivore interactions are on the rise globally, and often take the form of damage to property and livelihoods, human injuries or fatalities, and retaliatory killing of carnivores. Potential conflict situations are rarely recognized early, and circumstances are often complicated by mismatches between people's perceptions and reality. Following media reports of sloth bear Melursus ursinus attacks on people, we evaluated the situation in a tourism-dominated town in southern Rajasthan, India. Using a spatially explicit survey design, we interviewed 241 residents of Mount Abu to record recent bear sightings and attacks, prevailing attitudes towards bears, and respondents’ understanding of bear ecology. We obtained independent secondary information on tourism levels and bear attacks to verify information received during interviews. We used recursive partitioning to identify factors that explained residents’ attitudes towards sloth bears, and multi-model inference to identify land cover and other features that influenced bear presence. Respondents perceived increasing bear presence and attacks, and secondary data supported these perceptions. Respondents’ insights regarding bear ecology, particularly bears being attracted by rubbish bins, were supported by multi-model inferences. Mount Abu's residents, especially women and younger men, had negative attitudes towards bears, independent of their education level or occupation. Our findings suggest a novel situation in Mount Abu, with sloth bears habitually accessing rubbish bins, which leads to increased bear–human interactions and negative attitudes among residents. We recommend immediate action focusing on waste management, which could help prevent an escalation of the situation and reduce attacks by bears that could otherwise lead to retaliatory killings.
A compact circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna is presented for modern communication systems. The prospective antenna consists of a microstrip-line inset-fed rectangular patch and a defected ground plane. A rotated rectangular slot and a modified electric-inductive-capacitive (m-ELC) resonator are introduced in the patch and the ground plane to achieve multiband behaviour. A corner of the radiating patch is truncated and an arrow-shaped stub is introduced for generating circular polarization. The physical area of the substrate is 0.26λ0 × 0.22λ0, and the radiator size is 0.16λ0 × 0.14λ0, where λ0 is the free-space wavelength estimated at the lowest frequency. The measured (S11≤-10 dB) bandwidths of the antenna are 80 MHz (3.58%) at 2.23 GHz, 75 MHz (2.64%) at 2.84 GHz, 80 MHz (2.50%) at 3.19 GHz, and 70 MHz (1.82%) at 3.83 GHz. The measured 3-dB axial ratio bandwidths are 40 MHz (1.41%), 100 MHz (3.12%), and 60 MHz (1.57%) at 2.84, 3.20 and 3.82 GHz, respectively. The proposed planar antenna design does not need dual-feed or multi-layered patches for achieving multiple CP bands. It offers easy integration with the printed circuits of the communication systems.
Until the past half-century, all agriculture and land management was framed by local institutions strong in social capital. But neoliberal forms of development came to undermine existing structures, thus reducing sustainability and equity. The past 20 years, though, have seen the deliberate establishment of more than 8 million new social groups across the world. This restructuring and growth of rural social capital within specific territories is leading to increased productivity of agricultural and land management systems, with particular benefits for those previously excluded. Further growth would occur with more national and regional policy support.
Some interesting properties such as superelasticity, shape memory effect, kink resistance, good biocompatibility, biomechanical properties, and corrosion resistance made nitinol a popular biomaterial as stent and orthopedic implants. But surface modification is needed to control nickel leaching from its surface, making safe for human body. The aim of this study was to modify the nitinol surface by the silanization technique and electrophoretically deposited hydroxyapatite coating, and to conduct a detailed in vitro and in vivo investigation. Detailed in vitro investigation involved MTT assay with the human osteoblastic cells (MG63 cell) over a period of 5 days and confocal image study. In case of in vivo study, histological study, fluorochrome labeling study, and Micro-Ct study were conducted. The overall in vitro and in vivo results indicate that silanized nitinol samples are showing slightly better level of performance, but both the surface-modified samples are suitable as the potential bio-implant for orthopedic purpose.
In this work, a new compact, low profile, frequency, and end-fire pattern reconfigurable antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of four parasitic elements and an electric-inductive-capacitive (ELC) resonator enclosed with a closed ring resonator (CRR). The reconfigurability in the proposed antenna is achieved with the help of five PIN diodes (D1–D5) embedded on the top surface of the substrate. The diode (D1) is implanted between ELC and CRR resonators for frequency reconfigurability. The other four diodes (D2–D5) are implanted between the ground plane and four parasitic elements to control the electrical length of the ground plane to achieve pattern diversity. The ground plane and parasitic elements steer the primary omni-directional beam to bi-directional and uni-directional end-fire radiation at multiple frequencies. The proposed antenna exhibits multiband operation and end-fire pattern diversity depending upon the different states of PIN diodes. The overall size of the proposed antenna is 0.20λ0× 0.17λ0× 0.009λ0, where λ0 is calculated at the lowest resonance frequency. The impedance bandwidth of the antenna ranges from 1.45 to 26.22%, while peak gain varies from 0.86 to 3.86 dBi depending upon the state of operation. The measured results are in agreement with the simulated results, which confirm the frequency and pattern diversity performance of the antenna. The proposed antenna can be used in back-to-back repeater systems.
Mungbean seeds, despite being protected inside the pod, are susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) following rainfall due to lack of fresh seed dormancy (FSD), which deteriorates the quality of the seed/grain produced. Therefore, development of mungbean cultivars with short (10–15 days) period of FSD has become important to curtail losses incurred by PHS. In this study, we investigated variations in PHS, fresh seed germination (FSG) and activity of α-amylase enzyme in diverse mungbean genotypes. There was a wide variation in PHS tolerance and FSG among 163 genotypes examined and 14 genotypes were found to be tolerant (<20%) to PHS. Seed germination in a pod, a measure used to evaluate PHS, varied from 7.14% in germplasm accession Chamu 4 to 82.52% in cultivated variety IPM 2–3. There was a marked increase in α-amylase activity in genotypes showing high FSG and PHS, especially at 48 and 72 h after germination as compared with PHS tolerant genotypes. Therefore, α-amylase can be used as an effective biochemical marker to evaluate a large number of mungbean genotypes for FSD and PHS. Also, the variation in seed germinability as found in this study could be further used for mungbean improvement programme.