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Through pinpointing how Churchill’s perceptions of aerial bombardment evolved across his political career, this chapter highlights the ambivalence and incongruence that dogged his bombing policy from its earliest days: ultimately arguing that his vacillating approach towards the Allied bombing campaign – and his eventual calculated detachment from it – was not out of character. The chapter begins by establishing his preliminary beliefs about aerial bombardment; next, it traces how his bombing theory converted into destructive reality, from ‘aerially policing’ the British Empire in the 1920s to the Combined Bomber Offensive; finally, it examines how Churchill attempted to reconcile his incriminating role in the German firestorms with a war-scarred Britain after 1945.
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid mandated that nursing homes implement antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) by November 2017. We conducted surveys of Wisconsin nursing-home stewardship practices before and after this mandate. Our comparison of these surveys shows an overall increase in ASP implementation efforts, but it also highlights areas for further improvement.
Chronic muscle diseases (MD) are progressive and cause wasting and weakness in muscles and are associated with reduced quality of life (QoL). The ACTMuS trial examined whether Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as an adjunct to usual care improved QoL for such patients as compared to usual care alone.
This two-arm, randomised, multicentre, parallel design recruited 155 patients with MD (Hospital and Depression Scale ⩾ 8 for depression or ⩾ 8 for anxiety and Montreal Cognitive Assessment ⩾ 21/30). Participants were randomised, using random block sizes, to one of two groups: standard medical care (SMC) (n = 78) or to ACT in addition to SMC (n = 77), and were followed up to 9 weeks. The primary outcome was QoL, assessed by the Individualised Neuromuscular Quality of Life Questionnaire (INQoL), the average of five subscales, at 9-weeks. Trial registration was NCT02810028.
138 people (89.0%) were followed up at 9-weeks. At all three time points, the adjusted group difference favoured the intervention group and was significant with moderate to large effect sizes. Secondary outcomes (mood, functional impairment, aspects of psychological flexibility) also showed significant differences between groups at week 9.
ACT in addition to usual care was effective in improving QoL and other psychological and social outcomes in patients with MD. A 6 month follow up will determine the extent to which gains are maintained.
Paliperidone 3-monthly (PP3M) long-acting injection has proven efficacy and effectiveness in schizophrenia. Little is known of its effectiveness in other diagnoses.
All patients starting PP3M were followed up for 2 years. Main outcome measures were relapse and discontinuation from PP3M. Post hoc we examined outcomes in those switched back to one monthly paliperidone (PP1M) long-acting injection.
Overall, 186 patients were followed-up. At the 2-year end point, 110 patients (59%) were still receiving PP3M, and 129 (70%) were receiving some form of paliperidone long-acting injection. Discontinuation from paliperidone long-acting injections (PPLAIs) was more likely with a nonschizophrenia diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] for continuation 0.429 [95% confidence intervals (CI) – 0.21, 0.87 p = 0.018)), and prior clozapine use [in PP3M patients; HR for discontinuation 1.87 [95% CI – 1.05, 3.30 p = 0.032]). Relapse occurred in 20 (11%) of those receiving PP3M. Relapse on PP3M and PPLAIs was more likely in nonschizophrenia diagnosis (HR 0.17 for remaining relapse-free [95% CI – 0.06, 0.50; p = 0.001]; HR 0.21 [95% CI – 0.08, 0.58 p = 0.002], respectively), polypharmacy in PP3M patients (HR for relapse 7.91 [95% CI – 3.73, 22.9; p < 0.001]) and PPLAI patients (HR for relapse 6.45 [95% CI – 2.49, 16.5; p < 0.001]), and prior clozapine use in PP3M patients (HR for relapse 6.11 [95% CI – 1.82, 20.5; p = 0.003]) and PPLAI patients (HR for relapse 4.52 (95% CI – 1.51, 13.5; p = 0.007).
Outcomes with PP3M are excellent in practice, even when used outside its formal license. PP3M was relatively more effective in those with an F20 schizophrenia diagnosis and in those never before considered for or prescribed clozapine.
The current literature on the specific phobia of urinary incontinence is limited, with no specific empirically established model or treatment protocol.
This article consists of a case study of formulation-driven cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for phobia of urinary incontinence.
Martin attended a total of 12 treatment sessions. The treatment included the development of an idiosyncratic formulation, and the use of well-established cognitive and behavioural treatment strategies from other anxiety disorders.
Both outcome measures and Martin’s subjective report indicate that the treatment was effective.
This case study contributes to the current limited literature on this phobia, and emphasises the importance of formulation-driven CBT to map for idiosyncratic features and target cognitive and behavioural factors.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination effectiveness in healthcare personnel (HCP) has been established. However, questions remain regarding its performance in high-risk healthcare occupations and work locations. We describe the effect of a COVID-19 HCP vaccination campaign on SARS-CoV-2 infection by timing of vaccination, job type, and work location.
We conducted a retrospective review of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance, incidence of postvaccination COVID-19, hospitalization, and mortality among 16,156 faculty, students, and staff at a large academic medical center. Data were collected 8 weeks prior to the start of phase 1a vaccination of frontline employees and ended 11 weeks after campaign onset.
The COVID-19 incidence rate among HCP at our institution decreased from 3.2% during the 8 weeks prior to the start of vaccinations to 0.38% by 4 weeks after campaign initiation. COVID-19 risk was reduced among individuals who received a single vaccination (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–0.68; P < .0001) and was further reduced with 2 doses of vaccine (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09–0.32; P < .0001). By 2 weeks after the second dose, the observed case positivity rate was 0.04%. Among phase 1a HCP, we observed a lower risk of COVID-19 among physicians and a trend toward higher risk for respiratory therapists independent of vaccination status. Rates of infection were similar in a subgroup of nurses when examined by work location.
Our findings show the real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in HCP. Despite these encouraging results, unvaccinated HCP remain at an elevated risk of infection, highlighting the need for targeted outreach to combat vaccine hesitancy.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease resulting in muscle weakness, dysarthria and dysphagia, and ultimately respiratory failure leading to death. Half of the ALS patients survive less than 3 years, and 80% of the patients survive less than 5 years. Riluzole is the only approved medication in Canada with randomized controlled clinical trial evidence to slow the progression of ALS, albeit only to a modest degree. The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) collects data on over 140 different neuromuscular diseases including ALS across ten academic institutions and 28 clinics including ten multidisciplinary ALS clinics. Methods: In this study, CNDR registry data were analyzed to examine potential differences in ALS care among provinces in time to diagnosis, riluzole and feeding tube use. Results: Significant differences were found among provinces, in time to diagnosis from symptom onset, in the use of riluzole and in feeding tube use. Conclusions: Future investigations should be undertaken to identify factors contributing to such differences, and to propose potential interventions to address the provincial differences reported.
Background: Paruresis, or “shy bladder syndrome”, is a relatively common anxiety disorder, yet little is known about the causes of, and effective treatments for this disabling condition. Aim: This report describes a case study in which a man (Peter) presenting with paruresis was treated using formulation-driven CBT, which aimed to address the idiosyncratic processes that were maintaining his anxiety and avoidance of urinating in public. Method: Peter attended 12 sessions of CBT including one follow-up session a month after treatment had ended. Treatment involved collaboratively developing an idiosyncratic case conceptualization (identifying longitudinal and cross-sectional factors involved in the development and maintenance of his difficulties), followed by a number of standard cognitive and behavioural interventions commonly used in evidence-based CBT protocols for other anxiety disorders. Peter completed sessional outcome measures of paruresis symptomatology, anxiety, depression, social anxiety and functional impairment. Results: Peter subjectively found the intervention helpful and his scores on all of the outcome measures reduced over the course of his therapy, and were maintained at one month follow-up. Conclusions: This report adds to the scarce literature regarding effective treatments for individuals suffering with paruresis. Limitations of the design are acknowledged and ideas for further research in this area are discussed.
Variation in human cognitive ability is of consequence to a large number of health and social outcomes and is substantially heritable. Genetic linkage, genome-wide association, and copy number variant studies have investigated the contribution of genetic variation to individual differences in normal cognitive ability, but little research has considered the role of rare genetic variants. Exome sequencing studies have already met with success in discovering novel trait-gene associations for other complex traits. Here, we use exome sequencing to investigate the effects of rare variants on general cognitive ability. Unrelated Scottish individuals were selected for high scores on a general component of intelligence (g). The frequency of rare genetic variants (in n = 146) was compared with those from Scottish controls (total n = 486) who scored in the lower to middle range of the g distribution or on a proxy measure of g. Biological pathway analysis highlighted enrichment of the mitochondrial inner membrane component and apical part of cell gene ontology terms. Global burden analysis showed a greater total number of rare variants carried by high g cases versus controls, which is inconsistent with a mutation load hypothesis whereby mutations negatively affect g. The general finding of greater non-synonymous (vs. synonymous) variant effects is in line with evolutionary hypotheses for g. Given that this first sequencing study of high g was small, promising results were found, suggesting that the study of rare variants in larger samples would be worthwhile.
This book provides an overview of the research related to psychological assessment across South Africa. The thirty-six chapters provide a combination of psychometric theory and practical assessment applications in order to combine the currently disparate research that has been conducted locally in this field. Existing South African texts on psychological assessment are predominantly academic textbooks that explain psychometric theory and provide brief descriptions of a few testing instruments. Psychological Assessment in South Africa provides in-depth coverage of a range of areas within the broad field of psychological assessment, including research conducted with various psychological instruments. The chapters critically interrogate the current Eurocentric and Western cultural hegemonic practices that dominate the field of psychological assessment. The book therefore has the potential to function both as an academic text for graduate students, as well as a specialist resource for professionals, including psychologists, psychometrists, remedial teachers and human resource practitioners.