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Nutrition scientists are currently facing a substantial challenge: to feed the world population sustainably and ethically while supporting the health of all individuals, animals and the environment. The Nutrition Society of Australia's 2022 Annual Scientific meeting theme ‘Sustainable nutrition for a healthy life’ was a timely conference focusing on the environmental impact of global, national and local food systems, how nutrition science can promote sustainable eating practices while respecting cultural and culinary diversity and how to ensure optimal nutrition throughout life to prevent and manage chronic diseases. Comprehensive, diverse, collaborative and forward-thinking research was presented in a 3 d programme of keynote presentations, oral and poster sessions, breakfast and lunch symposiums, ending with a panel discussion to answer the question of how we can best achieve a nutritious food supply that supports human and planetary health. We concluded that this complex issue necessitates coordinated efforts and multi-faceted responses at local, national and global levels. Collaboration among consumers, scientists, industry and government using a systems approach is vital for finding solutions to this challenge.
Sound general and sports nutrition knowledge in athletes is essential for making appropriate dietary choices. Assessment of nutrition knowledge enables evaluation and tailoring of nutrition education. However, few well-validated tools are available to assess nutrition knowledge in athletes. The objective of the present study was to establish the validity of the Platform to Evaluate Athlete Knowledge Sports – Nutrition Questionnaire (PEAKS-NQ) for use in the United Kingdom and Irish (UK-I) athletes. To confirm content validity, twenty-three sports nutritionists (SNs) from elite, UK-I sports institutes provided feedback on the PEAKS-NQ via a modified Delphi method. After minor changes, the UK-I version of the PEAKS-NQ was administered to UK-I SN from the British Dietetic Association Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register, and elite athletes (EA) training at elite sports institutes in the UK and Ireland. Independent samples t-test and independent samples median tests were used to compare PEAKS-NQ total and subsection scores between EA and SN (to assess construct validity). Cronbach's alpha (good ≥ 0⋅7) was used to establish internal consistency. The SN achieved greater overall [SN (n 23) 92⋅3 (9⋅3) v. EA (n 154): 71⋅4 (10⋅0)%; P < 0⋅001] and individual section scores (P < 0⋅001) except Section B, Identification of Food Groups (P = 0⋅07). Largest knowledge differences between SN and EA were in Section D, Applied Sports Nutrition [SN: 88⋅5 (8⋅9) v. EA: 56⋅7 (14⋅5)%; P < 0⋅00]. Overall ES was large (2⋅1), with subsections ranging from 0⋅6 to 2⋅3. Cronbach's alpha was good (0⋅83). The PEAKS-NQ had good content and construct validity, supporting its use to assess nutrition knowledge of UK-I athletes.
The present study aimed to assess the longitudinal associations of coffee and tea consumption with metabolic syndrome and its component conditions in a group of Australian older adults who participated in the Blue Mountains Eye Study (n 2554, mean age: 64 years, 43 % female). Participants’ coffee and tea intake were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) over a 10-year period were estimated using Cox hazard regression models adjusting for lifestyle factors. Results showed that coffee consumption was not associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome, high fasting glucose, high triglycerides, central obesity, high blood pressure and low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Tea consumption was not associated with incidence of metabolic syndrome and the component conditions except for the risk of having low HDL-C, in which a nominally inverse association was observed (multivariate-adjusted HR at 2–3 cups/d: 0⋅48, 95 % CI 0⋅26, 0⋅87, P = 0⋅016; 4 cups/d or more: 0⋅50, 95 % CI 0⋅27, 0⋅93, P = 0⋅029). After stratifying for fruit consumption (Pinteraction between tea and fruit = 0⋅007), consuming four cups of tea per day was nominally associated with lower incidence of metabolic syndrome among those with high fruit consumption (multivariable-adjusted HR: 0⋅44, 95 % CI 0⋅20, 0⋅93, P = 0⋅033). Our results did not support a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome. Tea consumption may be associated with a lower risk of having low HDL-C, while high tea and fruit consumption together may be associated with a lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
The chapters collected in this volume explore the subject of translation, both linguistic and cultural, in relation to the composition, reception, and dissemination of romance across the languages of late medieval Britain, Ireland, and Iceland. This is a geographical and linguistic zone that we term, in line with its broader interdisciplinary usage, ‘Insular’, extending its application beyond the study of English romance, where ‘insular’ has referred primarily to English and French texts composed in England. The chapters included here are based on papers delivered at Cardiff University as part of the 2018 Romance in Medieval Britain conference – a series which has in recent years come to encompass a fuller geographical and linguistic range. This is a particularly welcome development, not least in the possibilities that this extended field presents for the connective and comparative study of a much translated and travelled genre, with an illuminating role to play in writing the history of pre-modern translation. The volume proposes a recentring, and extension, of our understanding of the corpus of medieval romance, which, although long considered extra-canonical, has over the previous decades acquired something approaching its own canon – a canon which we might now begin to unsettle, and of which we might ask new questions. In large part, this volume is aligned with broader endeavours to make multilingual and translated medieval content visible. This is not least within English studies – the dominant discipline to which this conference series, and its proceedings, generally speaks – which is now gradually expanding its engagement with romance's wider linguistic and cultural field(s).
This volume employs an extended definition of translation, beyond the purely linguistic. As Michelle Warren observes, translation studies has long regarded translation ‘less as a linguistic event and more as a manifestation of culture’. This perspective is of particular utility for medievalists, not least in its destabilisation of the hierarchical relationship between ‘original’ texts and translation. Warren extends her consideration of translation, in its cultural capacity, to what she terms ‘monolingual translatio’: single-language texts (in her examples, Middle English), written with an awareness of a broader cultural context in which translated texts circulate.
This chapter frames a new response to the Celtic source hypothesis long, and problematically, applied to the fairies of English and French romance. As Richard Firth Green notes, ‘Fairies are to be found from Iceland to Sicily and from the Pyrenees to the Ruhr, but the notion that Wales, Scotland and Ireland have a particular claim on them is deeply ingrained in the English speaking world.’ The particular Welsh associations of King Arthur, and the later fairy narratives associated with Avalon, may well have played a part in the persistence of this assumption – although, as I have argued elsewhere, the addition of the fairy narrative to the Avalon legend is most likely to have been an English and Continental innovation. The perception has also almost certainly been fuelled by the long legacy of an English nineteenth-century critical conflation of magic, nature, and a monolithic conception of ‘Celtic culture’, a framework into which the fairies of the Anglo-Continental tradition have been all too often inserted by twentieth-and twenty-first-century scholars of romance.
The course of analysis pursued in this chapter suggests a new approach, exploring what the supernatural imaginings of late medieval Welsh poetry might owe to romance paradigms, rather than vice versa. Its central argument is rooted in the cultural specificity of Welsh representations of the supernatural company, which operate in a marked contrast to the fairies of English and French romance – a distinction that is nowhere so clear as when Welsh authors engage with the cultural cues of romance.Taking as its focus the cywyddau serch (love poems) of Dafydd ap Gwilym (c. 1315–50), it explores Dafydd's reimagining of the supernaturalised court of Love, and the garden of Pleasure, of Guillaume de Lorris's Roman de la Rose (c. 1230). It considers the ways in which Dafydd overlays Guillaume's mythology of love with Welsh legendary and cultural frameworks, drawing on the precedent of the noble household in Wales in the generations following the Edwardian conquest of 1282–83. I approach this topic as a discrete chapter in the relationship between the Roman and other vernacular literary cultures of the late Middle Ages, and understand Dafydd's use of the Roman, or related traditions, as a movement we might place alongside that of his English counterpart, Geoffrey Chaucer.
This article explores the role of the phantom in relation to legendary historical constructions of place. It takes as its focus Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (hereafter SGGK) and the first component romance of the bipartite Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyn (hereafter Awntyrs A). Unlike the other English Gawain romances, which typically trace the extension of Arthur's insular kingdom to the north and the west through the deeds of his knight Gawain, these are concerned not with the growth of Arthurian power but its decline. In their imaginings of insular imperium and its limits, both romances draw on a dominant medieval discourse explicitly concerned with place: political prophecy. A long tradition informed by Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia regum Britanniae (c. 1138), and its prophetic seventh book, the Prophetiae Merlini, political prophecy in England is for the most part concerned with the movements of insular political power rather than religious revelation. It is, however, ascribed to a number of prophetic authorities alongside Merlin, which include among their number saints and even the Virgin Mary. The phantoms with which this article is concerned function as another distinct category of prophetic authority, on some occasions held to be synonymous with the fairy, and on others aligned with souls returned from purgatory. This material presents a salient reminder of the porous division between the sacred and the secular in Middle English romance. I suggest that both romances make use of longstanding purgatorial systems of representation, which provide a model for the interventions of phantoms in imaginings of the movements, and the limits, of earthly power.
Twelfth-and Thirteenth-Century Analogues
The political situation of the phantom is not unique to medieval Arthuriana. It is a staple of classical epic, which finds a precedent familiar to medieval authors, both sacred and secular, in Book VI of the Aeneid, where the shade of Anchises prophesies to Aeneas a succession of Roman emperors, and the attendant fortunes of Rome. The motif recurs throughout the Middle Ages, including the Vision of Charles the Fat (c. 888), an apocalyptic prophetic endorsement of the accession of the future Louis III, delivered by his uncle and grandfather from purgatory.
The Maintain Your Brain (MYB) trial is one of the largest internet-delivered multidomain randomised controlled trial designed to target modifiable risk factors for dementia. It comprises four intervention modules: physical activity, nutrition, mental health and cognitive training. This paper explains the MYB Nutrition Module, which is a fully online intervention promoting the adoption of the ‘traditional’ Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern for those participants reporting dietary intake that does not indicate adherence to a Mediterranean-type cuisine or those who have chronic diseases/risk factors for dementia known to benefit from this type of diet. Participants who were eligible for the Nutrition Module were assigned to one of the three diet streams: Main, Malnutrition and Alcohol group, according to their medical history and adherence to the MedDiet at baseline. A short dietary questionnaire was administered weekly during the first 10 weeks and then monthly during the 3-year follow-up to monitor whether participants adopted or maintained the MedDiet pattern during the intervention. As the Nutrition Module is a fully online intervention, resources that promoted self-efficacy, self-management and process of change were important elements to be included in the module development. The Nutrition Module is unique in that it is able to individualise the dietary advice according to both the medical and dietary history of each participant; the results from this unique intervention will contribute substantively to the evidence that links the Mediterranean-type diet with cognitive function and the prevention of dementia and will increase our understanding of the benefits of a MedDiet in a Western country.
Reliable and valid assessment of sports nutrition knowledge can inform athlete nutrition education to address knowledge gaps. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of an electronically administered sports nutrition knowledge tool – Platform to Evaluate Athlete Knowledge of Sports Nutrition Questionnaire (PEAKS-NQ). A 94-item PEAKS-NQ was piloted to 149 developmental athletes (DA) in New Zealand, with a subset invited to complete the PEAKS-NQ again to assess reliability. Reliability was evaluated using sign test, intraclass correlation and Cronbach’s α. Accredited sports dietitians (ASD; n 255) completed the PEAKS-NQ to establish construct validity via known-groups methodology and provided relevance scores to determine the scale content validity index (S-CVI). Rasch analysis was conducted to identify potentially problematic items and test reliability. Score differences between DA and ASD were analysed using independent t or non-parametric tests. DA (n 88) were 17·8 (sd 1·4) years, 61·4 % female and mostly in high school (94·3 %). ASD (n 45) were 37·8 (sd 7·6) years, 82·2 % female, with >5 years of dietetic experience (59·1 %). ASD scored higher than DA in all sections and overall (91·5 (sd 3·4) v. 67·1 (sd 10·5) %) (P < 0·001). There were no differences between retests (n 18; P = 0·14). Cronbach’s α was 0·86. S-CVI indicated good content validity (0·88). Rasch analysis resulted in a fifty-item PEAKS-NQ with high item (0·91) and person (0·92) reliability. The PEAKS-NQ is reliable and valid for assessing sports nutrition knowledge which could assist practitioners effectively tailor and evaluate nutrition education.
Diet quality indices are a practical, cost-effective method to evaluate dietary patterns, yet few have investigated diet quality in athletes. This study describes the relative validity and reliability of the recently developed Athlete Diet Index (ADI). Participants completed the electronic ADI on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, followed by a 4-d estimated food record (4-dFR). Relative validity was evaluated by directly comparing mean scores of the two administrations (mAdm) against scores derived from 4-dFR using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman (B–A) plots. Construct validity was investigated by comparing mAdm scores and 4-dFR-derived nutrient intakes using Spearman’s coefficient and independent t test. Test–retest reliability was assessed using paired t test, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and B–A plots. Sixty-eight elite athletes (18·8 (sd 4·2) years) from an Australian sporting institute completed the ADI on both occasions. Mean score was 84·1 (sd 15·2; range 42·5–114·0). The ADI had good reliability (ICC = 0·80, 95 % CI 0·69, 0·87; P < 0·001), and B–A plots (mean 1·9; level of agreement −17·8, 21·7) showed no indication of systematic bias (y = 4·57–0·03 × x) (95 % CI −0·2, 0·1; P = 0·70). Relative validity was evaluated in fifty athletes who completed all study phases. Comparison of mAdm scores with 4-dFR-derived scores was moderate (rs 0·69; P < 0·001) with no systematic bias between methods of measurement (y = 6·90–0·04 × x) (95 % CI −0·3, 0·2; P = 0·73). Higher scores were associated with higher absolute nutrient intake consistent with a healthy dietary pattern. The ADI is a reliable tool with moderate validity, demonstrating its potential for application to investigate the diet quality of athletes.
Chronic foot ulcers are associated with a high risk of osteomyelitis, poor quality of life, amputations and disability. Few strategies improve their healing, and amputation rates in high-risk foot services are usually over 30 %. We conducted a randomised, inactive-placebo controlled, double-blind trial of 500 mg of slow-release vitamin C in sixteen people with foot ulcers in the Foot Wound Clinic at Westmead Hospital. Nine were randomised to control and seven to vitamin C. When serum vitamin C results become available at 4 weeks, all people with deficiency were offered both vitamin C and glucosamine tablets for the next 4 weeks. Patients without baseline deficiency continued their original assigned treatment. The primary outcome was percentage ulcer healing (reduction in ulcer size) at 8 weeks. Fifty percentage of subjects had baseline vitamin C deficiency, half having undetectable levels. Healing at 8 weeks was significantly better in the vitamin C group (median 100 v. –14 %, P = 0·041). Healing without amputation occurred in all patients in the vitamin C group. In contrast, 44 % of controls had not healed their ulcer at the end of the study period. Vitamin C improved healing of foot ulcers. Further studies are needed to determine whether there is a threshold effect for serum vitamin C above which therapy is ineffective and whether there are better or lesser responding subgroups. Because of its low cost and ease of access and administration, we recommend offering vitamin C therapy to all people who have chronic foot ulcers and potentially suboptimal vitamin C intake. Trial registration number: ACTRN12617001142325.
The aim is to systematically assess the health impact of a low-inflammatory diet intervention (full-diet or supplement), compared to usual diet or other dietary interventions, on weight change, inflammatory biomarkers, joint symptoms, and quality of life in adults with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or seronegative arthropathy (psoriatic, reactive, ankylosing spondylitis or IBD-related), on outcomes assessed in prospective studies within 6 months of intervention commencement (PROSPERO CRD42019136567). Search of multiple electronic library databases from inception to July 2019, supplemented by grey literature searches, for randomised and prospective trials assessing the above objective. After exclusion of 446 ineligible studies, five randomised and two prospective trials involving 468 participants with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis were included. GRADE assessment for all outcomes was very low. Meta-analyses produced the following standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2–4 months following commencement of the diets favouring the low-inflammatory diet: weight SMD −0⋅45 (CI −0⋅71, −0⋅18); inflammatory biomarkers SMD −2⋅33 (CI −3⋅82, −0⋅84). No significant effects were found for physical function (SMD −0⋅62; CI −1⋅39, 0⋅14), general health (SMD 0⋅89; CI −0⋅39, 2⋅16) and joint pain (SMD −0⋅98; CI −2⋅90, 0⋅93). In most studies, the quality of dietary intervention (dietitian input, use of validated dietary compliance tool) could not be gauged. In conclusion, very low-level evidence suggests that low-inflammatory diets or supplements compared to usual diets are associated with greater weight loss and improvement in inflammatory biomarkers. More high-quality trials are needed to assess the health effects of a low-inflammatory diet more comprehensively and conclusively in arthritic conditions.
The present study aims to investigate the effect of wholegrain and legume consumption on the incidence of age-related cataract in an older Australian population-based cohort. The Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) is a population-based cohort study of eye diseases among older adults aged 49 years or older (1992–1994, n 3654). Of 2334 participants of the second examination of the BMES (BMES 2, 1997–2000), 1541 (78·3 % of survivors) were examined 5 years later (BMES 3) who had wholegrain and legume consumption estimated from the FFQ at BMES 2. Cataract was assessed using photographs taken during examinations following the Wisconsin cataract grading system. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess associations with the 5-year incidence of cataract from BMES 2 (baseline) to BMES 3. The 5-year incidence of cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract was 18·2, 16·5 and 5·9 %, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex and other factors, total wholegrain consumption at baseline was not associated with incidence of any type of cataract. High consumption of legumes showed a protective association for incident PSC cataract (5th quintile: adjusted OR 0·37; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·92). There was no significant trend of this association across quintiles (P = 0·08). In this older Australian population, we found no associations between wholegrain intake at baseline and the 5-year incidence of three cataract types. However, intake of legumes in the highest quintile, compared with the lowest quintile, may protect against PSC formation, a finding needing replication in other studies.