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To categorise records according to primary cardiac diagnosis in the United Kingdom Central Cardiac Audit Database in order to add this information to a risk adjustment model for paediatric cardiac surgery.
Codes from the International Paediatric Congenital Cardiac Code were mapped to recognisable primary cardiac diagnosis groupings, allocated using a hierarchy and less refined diagnosis groups, based on the number of functional ventricles and presence of aortic obstruction.
A National Clinical Audit Database.
Children undergoing cardiac interventions: the proportions for each diagnosis scheme are presented for 13,551 first patient surgical episodes since 2004.
In Scheme 1, the most prevalent diagnoses nationally were ventricular septal defect (13%), patent ductus arteriosus (10.4%), and tetralogy of Fallot (9.5%). In Scheme 2, the prevalence of a biventricular heart without aortic obstruction was 64.2% and with aortic obstruction was 14.1%; the prevalence of a functionally univentricular heart without aortic obstruction was 4.3% and with aortic obstruction was 4.7%; the prevalence of unknown (ambiguous) number of ventricles was 8.4%; and the prevalence of acquired heart disease only was 2.2%. Diagnostic groups added to procedural information: of the 17% of all operations classed as “not a specific procedure”, 97.1% had a diagnosis identified in Scheme 1 and 97.2% in Scheme 2.
Diagnostic information adds to surgical procedural data when the complexity of case mix is analysed in a national database. These diagnostic categorisation schemes may be used for future investigation of the frequency of conditions and evaluation of long-term outcome over a series of procedures.
This study describes single-unit experience and explores risk stratification, with protocolised inter-stage cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Survival was retrospectively analysed among the cohort of locally followed survivors of Norwood Stage I procedure, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging under general anaesthesia from 2003 to 2008. This included 32 patients: 17 with Sano conduit and 15 with arterio-pulmonary shunt. The median (inter-quartile range) age and weight at scan were 3.1 (2.6–4.6) months and 5.0 (4.5–5.3) kilograms, respectively. Using morphologic definitions, the median coarctation index was 0.71 (0.57–0.83). The degree of proximal right and left pulmonary artery narrowing was 25% (14–44%) and 25% (11–50%), respectively. The median right ventricular ejection fraction was 54% (48–59%). The ejection fraction was not related to the coarctation index or to pulmonary artery narrowing. Patients were followed up for a median of 19.2 (10.8–46.0) months, during which 13 (41%) had an intervention in addition to routine Norwood Stage II surgery and seven died. Risk of death was related to reduced right ventricular ejection fraction, with a hazard ratio of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.85–0.98, p = 0.02), and the cumulative number of focal stenoses of neo-aortic arch and pulmonary arteries (hazard ratio 2.71, 95% confidence interval 1.14–6.44, p = 0.02). Conclusions: In addition to comprehensive three-dimensional morphologic imaging, inter-stage cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides a ventricular functional index that may predict outcome in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Measures to preserve right ventricular systolic function and relieve stenoses are paramount within the complex management strategies for these patients.
The appropriate timing of intervention in patients with chronic aortic incompetence allows recovery of ventricular function. We sought to determine the optimal timing of the Ross procedure for chronic aortic incompetence in young patients. We retrospectively analysed case notes, and measured pre- and postoperative echocardiographic indexes of left ventricular function, in patients who had undergone the Ross procedure for chronic aortic incompetence. Methods and results: We found 21 patients with preoperative and postoperative data suitable for analysis. Their age at operation ranged from 5.6 to 26 years, with a median of 13.8 years, and the duration of follow-up was from 0.5 to 6.8 years, with a median of 2.4 years. The preoperative left ventricular end-diastolic dimension was converted to a z-score, and this was used as a threshold to divide the population. Using the threshold of a preoperative left ventricular z-score of more than 3 to divide the population did not show any difference in postoperative parameters of left ventricular function. Significant differences were found postoperatively, however, in both the left ventricular z-score and the ratio of left ventricular end-diastolic radius to posterior wall thickness in diastole, with a cutoff preoperative threshold z-score greater than 4. Conclusion: The increase in the ratio of left ventricular end-diastolic radius to the thickness of the posterior wall in diastole would suggest that there is disruption of left ventricular short axis architecture and myocardial contractile function when intervention is postponed. The significantly larger left ventricular dimension at end-diastole, despite the reduction in volume loading post surgery, may also demonstrate irreversible structural changes. Our data would suggest that recovery of left ventricular function is less likely when the left ventricular z-score has reached the value of 4, and that, ideally, intervention should be performed when the z-score approaches or exceeds 3.
Repair of complex malformations that necessitate restoration of continuity between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries can now safely be performed with low morbidity and mortality. Major concerns still remain on the long-term outlook for these patients, and about the durability of the different prostheses used to restore that continuity, whether during initial correction or at the time of reintervention for failure of the conduit or pulmonary regurgitation. In this review, we discuss the salient morphologic features of the right ventricular outflow tract, and then focus on the indications for early and late intervention, current therapeutic options, and outcomes.
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