To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.
BACKGROUND: The use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has been used in certain pediatric patients with brain tumours to delay/spare radiotherapy. We aimed to study factors predicting a successful stem cell collection (SCC) and correlate stem cell dose infused with HSCT outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was undertaken for pediatric patients with brain tumours treated at our centre with HDC/HSCT between 2004-2016. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were identified (32 male) with median age of 6.3 years at time of SCC (range 0.4-18.7). Patients' diagnoses were medulloblastoma (62%), ATRT (20%), and PNET (18%). Most patients (82%) underwent a single/1-day SCC, while the remaining required 2 SCC procedures. Peripheral blood stem cells were the source in most collections (95%). Successful SCC (CD34 collected greater-than-or-equal-to 2 x10^6/kg/transplant) and ideal SCC (greater-than-or-equal-to 5 x10^6/kg/transplant) was achieved in 85% and 45% of patients, respectively. Use of mobilizing chemotherapy with G-CSF was the only factor associated with achieving an ideal collection, while gender, age, stem cell source, and pre-apheresis peripheral blood CD34 count were not significant. Higher CD34/kg infused was associated with faster neutrophil engraftment in the first 3 courses of HDC/HSCT and platelet engraftment in the first course. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of SCC for autologous HSCT can be successfully completed with a single apheresis session. Mobilization with both chemotherapy and G-CSF yields higher CD34 compared to G-CSF alone. Higher dose of CD34/kg infused was associated with faster neutrophil and to a more limited scale platelet recovery post-HSCT.
Stress caused by early weed competition is known to delay the rate of maize development which may result in a decrease in kernel number. Kernel number in maize is correlated negatively with the length of the anthesis-silking interval (ASI). A short ASI has been identified as an easily measured, visual trait which may identify enhanced drought tolerance in maize. Field studies were conducted to test whether: (1) delaying weed control would result in a lengthening of ASI in both a drought tolerant and non-drought tolerant maize hybrid and (2) the presence of drought tolerance genetics comes at a physiological cost, resulting in a greater yield reduction under weedy conditions. In this study, the response of a drought tolerant hybrid with its non-drought tolerant near-isoline was compared to seven different timings of weed control using wheat as a surrogate competitor. Results confirmed that there was no treatment by hybrid interaction at any site–yr for any of the parameters evaluated. Delaying weed control reduced plant height, leaf tip number, shifted and reduced biomass accumulation, kernel number and grain yield and lengthened ASI for both hybrids. Although yield losses occurred with the delay in weed control timing, no yield differences were observed between hybrids suggesting that there was no additional physiological cost associated with the drought tolerant traits. The drought tolerant hybrid, however, was found to have a shorter ASI, lower kernel number and higher kernel wt compared to the non-drought tolerant hybrid. This study confirmed that delaying weed control can influence the length of ASI, which is an important drought tolerant trait. The lengthening of ASI by early weed competition resulted in a rate of yield loss of 0.13 T ha−1 growing degree days (GDD)−1 when averaged across both hybrids and all treatments.
Excavations at a cave site on the island of Palawan in the Philippines show occupation from c. 11000 BP. A fine assemblage of tools and faunal remains shows the reliance of hunter-foragers switching from deer to pig. In 9500-9000 BP, a human cremation burial in a container was emplaced, the earliest yet known in the region.
We present the first record of Holocene and Pleistocene environmental change derived from the chemical and stable-isotope composition of a tropical cave guano sequence from Makangit Cave in northern Palawan (Philippines). The 180 cm sequence of guano, derived predominantly from insectivorous bats and birds, consists of two distinct units. An upper section of reddish-brown oxidised guano to 110 cm was deposited since the mid-Holocene while a lower section of black, reduced guano was deposited through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to >30 000 BP. Carbon-isotope (δ13C) values in guano deposited during the LGM are as high as −13·5‰ indicating that a C4-dominated grassland existed in the area around the cave at this time. Guano δ13C values of − 25‰ to − 28‰ suggest that this open vegetation was replaced by C3-dominated closed tropical forest, similar to that of the present, by the mid-Holocene. The results suggest that the climate of northern Palawan was substantially drier at the LGM than is currently the case.
The paper describes the initial results from renewed investigations at Niah Cave in Sarawak on the island of Borneo, famous for the discovery in 1958 of the c. 40,000–year old ‘Deep Skull’. The archaeological sequences from the West Mouth and the other entrances of the cave complex investigated by Tom and Barbara Harrisson and other researchers have potential implications for three major debates regarding the prehistory of south-east Asia: the timing of initial settlement by anatomically modern humans; the means by which they subsisted in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene; and the timing, nature, and causation of the transition from foraging to farming. The new project is informing on all three debates. The critical importance of the Niah stratigraphies was commonly identified – including by Tom Harrisson himself – as because the site provided a continuous sequence of occupation over the past 40,000 years. The present project indicates that Niah was first used at least 45,000 years ago, and probably earlier; that the subsequent Pleistocene and Holocene occupations were highly variable in intensity and character; and that in some periods, perhaps of significant duration, the caves may have been more or less abandoned. The cultural sequence that is emerging from the new investigations may be more typical of cave use in tropical rainforests in south-east Asia than the Harrisson model.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.