Bipolar disorder is an etiologically complex syndrome that is dearly heritable. Multiple, genes, working singly or in concert, are likely to cause susceptibility to bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder genetics has progressed rapidly in the last few decades. However, specific causal genetic mutations for bipolar disorder have not been identified. Both candidate gene studies and complete genome screens have been conducted. They have provided compelling evidence for several potential bipolar disorder susceptibility loci in several regions of the genome. The strongest evidence suggests that bipolar disorder susceptibility loci may lie in one or more genomic regions on chromosomes 18, 4, and 21. Other regions of interest, including those on chromosomes 5 and 8, are also under investigation. New approaches, such as the use of genetically isolated populations and the use of endophenotypes for bipolar disorder, hold promise for continued advancement in the search to identify specific bipolar disorder genes.