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Our objective was to evaluate the genetic merit of Holstein cattle population in southern Brazil in response to variations in the regional temperature by analyzing the genotype by environment interaction using reaction norms. Fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) data of 67 360 primiparous cows were obtained from the database of the Paraná Holstein Breeders Association, Brazil (APCBRH). The regional average annual temperature was used as the environmental variable. A random regression model was adopted applying mixed models with Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) algorithm using WOMBAT software. The genetic merit of the 15 most representative bulls, depending on the temperature gradient, was evaluated. Heritability ranged from 0.21 to 0.27 for FY and from 0.14 to 0.20 for PY. The genetic correlation observed among the environmental gradients proved to be higher than 0.80 for both traits. Slight reranking of bulls for both traits was detected, demonstrating that non-relevant genotype by environment interaction for FY and PY were observed. Consequently, no inclusion of the temperature effect in the model of genetic evaluation in southern Brazilian Holstein breed is required.
Geomagnetic storms can be modeled as stochastic processes with log-normal probability distribution function over their minimum Dst index value measured during the main phase of each event. Considering a time series of geomagnetic storm events between 1957 and 2019 we have analyzed the probability of occurrence of small, moderate, strong and extreme events. The data were separated according to solar cycle (SC) and solar cycle phases and fitted through maximum likelihood method in order to compare rates of occurrence of the last Solar Cycle (SC24) with previous ones. Our results show that for Dst < – 100 nT events in SC24 are similar to those in SC20, obtaining ⁓42 vs 21 median rate storms per cycle with 95% confidence intervals using Bootstrap Method. As SC24 has been the least active solar cycle in over 200 years, we conclude that this method tends to overestimate geomagnetic storms occurrence rates even for small events.
This paper is focused on explaining the radiation test in temperature performed on the Engineering and Qualification Model of the Medium Gain Antenna Radiofrequency (MGA-RFA) Assembly of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The goal of this program is to observe and study Mercury and its surroundings in a very demanding environment in terms of temperature and radiation. The MGA is an X-band two-axis steerable horn, which provides bidirectional communications between spacecraft and Earth as backup of the High Gain Antenna and also operates as primary communication link at several mission stages or conditions. The paper presents the measurement set-up for the qualification campaign of the antenna, where it was necessary to characterize the antenna in a representative thermal environment, and the results obtained from this test. Results of test up to 150°C show how gain and radiation pattern shapes are slightly affected by thermal stress, but without jeopardizing mission requirements. In addition, by analyzing correlation of this test with RF analysis in the same thermal conditions, it becomes possible to accurately extrapolate the MGA-RFA behavior up to temperatures of more than 500°C. This fact allowed the successful space qualification of this model.
The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life, psychiatric morbidity, and the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and young adults with CHD, and determine which variables play a role in buffering stress and promoting resilience and which ones have a detrimental effect; and to investigate the situation on school performance and failures, social and family support, physical limitations, and body image of these patients.
The study enrolled 137 CHD patients (79 male), with age ranging from 12 to 26 years old (M=17.60±3.450 years). The patients were interviewed regarding social support, family educational style, self-image, demographic information, and physical limitations. They responded to questions in a standardised psychiatric interview (SADS-L) and completed self-reported questionnaires for the assessment of quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) and psychosocial adjustment (YSR/ASR).
We found a 19.7% lifetime prevalence of psychopathology in our patients (27.6% in female and 13.9% in male). Of them, 48% had retentions in school (M=1.61 year±0.82). The perception of quality of life in CHD patients is better compared with the Portuguese population in the social relationships and environmental dimensions. However, it is worse in complex forms of CHD than in moderate-to-mild ones, in cyanotic versus acyanotic patients, in moderate-to-severe versus mild residual lesions, in patients submitted versus those not submitted to surgery, in patients with versus without physical limitations, and patients who have need for medication versus those who do not. Social support is very important in improving quality of life of patients in all dimensions as well as academic performance.
Female patients and patients with poor academic performance and poor social support have worse psychosocial adjustment and perception of quality of life.
The solutions of a perturbed linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) system are studied. Provided that some integrability and oddness conditions are satisfied, we show that they are asymptotically equivalent at t = ±∞ to the solutions of the unperturbed one. This fact is used to determine the existence of almost periodic or pseudo-almost periodic solutions of the perturbed system.
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