In iteroparous organisms, maximum lifetime reproductive success is achieved through multiple successful breeding attempts. Therefore one of an individual's major life-history decisions is the allocation of resources between current and future reproduction. We studied the production of foetuses in the introduced female Canadian beaver Castor canadensis in Finland in 1992–93. The number of foetuses produced in 1993 was negatively correlated with the number produced in the previous year, irrespective of female age. Females that bred only in 1993 tended to produce more foetuses in that year than females that had reproduced in both years. However, the total number of foetuses produced was higher in females that had young in both years, stressing the importance of multiple breeding attempts in maximizing lifetime reproductive success. Despite the small size of the founder population in Finland, mean litter size and pregnancy rates were not different from North American populations.