Constructional sedimentary history of coastal barriers can provide insights regarding meteorological and oceanographic processes, and relative sea-level changes. We investigated the Holocene evolution of a segment of the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain in southernmost Brazil. Data were obtained from ground-penetrating radargrams, optically stimulated luminescence dating, altimetry measurements, Google Earth imagery, and aerial photographs. These data allowed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the beach profiles recorded in the radargrams. From which eolian, backshore/foreshore, breaker bars, and upper and lower shoreface radar facies were identified. The beach-related radar facies are recorded in twenty-eight progradational sand units (sigmoidal bodies). These units record increments of relatively steady deposition bounded by erosional surfaces produced by anomalous, high-magnitude storm events taking place about every 250 years. The upper shoreface strata include two to three breaker bars. Several pieces of evidence (number of breaker bars, upper shoreface gradient and progradation rate) suggest an alternation between dissipative and intermediate stages of barrier morphodynamics and a decrease of wave energy from 2 ka onwards. The barrier prograded during the last 7.1 ka, and initially, barrier progradation occurred because of a normal regression during a relative sea-level rise followed by a stillstand. Later, barrier progradation took place as a forced regression driven by a relative sea-level fall.