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Objectives:Candida auris was first detected in Japan in 2009 and has been reported in >47 countries, typically causing outbreaks in healthcare settings. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, this pathogen causes death in more than one-third of infected patients. This study describes characteristics of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) related to C. auris and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures applied to control transmission in Cho Ray Hospital, a tertiary-care, referral, general hospital in southern Vietnam. Methods: We reviewed medical records of all patients with HAIs caused by C. auris at Cho Ray Hospital between April 2020 and March 2021, as well as the IPC measures applied for these patients. Results: Overall, 5 HAI cases caused by C. auris were identified in 5 patients, including 2 catheter-associated urinary tract infections, 2 ventilator-associated pneumonia cases, and 1 surgical site infection. These cases were sporadically detected in 4 different clinical departments; 2 cases occurred in the respiratory department in April and August 2020. The average age of the patients was 63, and 4 of 5 patients were male. The average hospital stay was 27.2 days; 4 patients died and 1 was discharged. IPC interventions were implemented to immediately respond to C. auris infection cases, including isolating the patients, applying standard and transmission-based precautions, supplying adequate personal protective equipment, cleaning environment surfaces and medical equipment in the patient’s room, and marking isolation areas with signage. No additional cases of C. auris infection were detected in the affected units. Conclusions:C. auris can spread in healthcare settings via contact with contaminated equipment and surfaces or from person to person, causing outbreaks in hospitals and leading to severe illness and high mortality for patients. Prompt application of appropriate IPC measures effectively helped prevent additional cases of C. auris in our hospital.
To describe epidemiologic and genomic characteristics of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large skilled-nursing facility (SNF), and the strategies that controlled transmission.
Design, setting, and participants:
This cohort study was conducted during March 22–May 4, 2020, among all staff and residents at a 780-bed SNF in San Francisco, California.
Contact tracing and symptom screening guided targeted testing of staff and residents; respiratory specimens were also collected through serial point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in units with confirmed cases. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to characterize viral isolate lineages and relatedness. Infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions included restricting from work any staff who had close contact with a confirmed case; restricting movement between units; implementing surgical face masking facility-wide; and the use of recommended PPE (ie, isolation gown, gloves, N95 respirator and eye protection) for clinical interactions in units with confirmed cases.
Of 725 staff and residents tested through targeted testing and serial PPSs, 21 (3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive: 16 (76%) staff and 5 (24%) residents. Fifteen cases (71%) were linked to a single unit. Targeted testing identified 17 cases (81%), and PPSs identified 4 cases (19%). Most cases (71%) were identified before IPC interventions could be implemented. WGS was performed on SARS-CoV-2 isolates from 4 staff and 4 residents: 5 were of Santa Clara County lineage and the 3 others were distinct lineages.
Early implementation of targeted testing, serial PPSs, and multimodal IPC interventions limited SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the SNF.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria are an urgent threat to healthcare safety around the world. In Vietnam, Although surveillance and control of multidrug-resistant organisms is a national priority, information on the burden of these resistant pathogens is still scarce. At University Medical Center Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, we aimed to better understand carbapenem-resistance through 2 phases: (1) assess proportion of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms that are carbapanemase-producing (CP-CRO) and (2) assess transmission burden of carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterieacea (CP-CRE) in the general intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: In the first phase, all gram-negative clinical isolates collected between November 2018 and April 2019 were tested for carbapenem-resistance using the disc-diffusion method and were defined as meropenem resistant using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2018 break point (M100-Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 28th Edition). Carbapenem-resistant bacteria were tested for phenotypic carbapenemase-production using the Becton Dickinson Phoenix CPO Detect assay. In the second phase, we instituted CP-CRE rectal screening using CHROMagar mSuperCARBA media for all ICU patients from July through September 2019. Patients were screened on admission, and negative patients were rescreened every 2 days until discharge, death, or CRE-positive screening or culture. Admission prevalence and incidence of CP-CRE transmission was calculated among CP-CRE infected or colonized patients. Results: From November 2018 through April 2019, 599 gram-negative clinical isolates from 543 patient samples were identified. Of these, 108 were carbapenem-resistant; 107 (99%) of carbapenem-resistant isolates were carbapenemase-producing by phenotypic method. Most CP-CRO were Acinetobacter baumannii (45 of 107, 42%) or Klebsiella pneumoniae (39 of 107, 36%). During ICU CP-CRE colonization screening, the July positivity rate on admission was 40% (32 of 81), the August positivity rate on admission was 30% (21 of 71), and the September positivity rate on admission was 40% (30 of 75). Of those with negative admission screen, the proportion of new CP-CRE colonization in July was 45% (22 of 49), the proportion of new CP-CRE colonization in August was 64% (32 of 50), and the proportion of new CP-CRE colonization in September was 44% (20 of 45). Across all 3 months of screening, the proportions of CP-CRE that were Klebsiella, Citrobacter, or Enterobacter were 68% (118 of 174) and the proportion of CP-CRE that were Eschericia coli was 37% (56 of 174). The average number of days to turn from negative to positive screening result was 4.1. Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrates that nearly all carbapenem-resistant organisms at our hospital are carbapenemase producing. In the ICU, we identified a high burden of CP-CRE, attributable to high presence on admission and new acquisition in the ICU. An intervention package based on CDC-recommended enhanced infection control measures is being implemented to decrease CP-CRE transmission in the ICU.
Background: Since 2015, the CDC has supported the development and implementation of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance in resource-limited settings through technical support of case definitions and methods that are feasible with existing surveillance capacity and integration with clinical care to maximize sustainability and data use for action. Methods: Surveillance initiatives included facility-level implementation programs in Kenya, Sierra Leone, Thailand, and Georgia; larger national or regional network-level projects in India and Vietnam were also supported. For assessment and planning, surveillance capacities were grouped into 3 domains: staff, informatics, and diagnostic capacities. Based on these capacities, simplified case definitions surveillance methodologies were devised to balance resources and effort with the anticipated value and use of findings. Results: There was broad understanding of the importance of HAI surveillance; however, the required resources and other challenges (eg, training, staffing, quality of available data) were underappreciated. Staff capacities were often influenced by a lack of dedicated surveillance staff and limited experience in systematic data collection and analysis. Informatics capacities were generally limited by the lack of digital data management, nonstandardized clinical data collection and storage, and the inability to assign and maintain unique patient identifiers. We found that capacity for diagnostics, a critical component of traditional HAI surveillance systems, was limited by its availability, frequency of use, and inconsistent rationale in clinical care. We found that successful surveillance strategies were generally simple, matched existing capacities, and targeted specific HAI priorities identified by clinical teams. For example, in Kenya and Sierra Leone, participating facilities established, with minimal external support, simplified SSI surveillance among post–caesarean-delivery patients. These initiatives improved integration of surveillance with clinical care through encouraging participation of the clinical team in surveillance and planning. Furthermore, these models directly linked surveillance activities to improved patient care (eg, combined clinical checklists with surveillance data collection forms). Discussion: In resource-limited settings, the local cost and effort required to establish and sustain the necessary infrastructure for HAI surveillance can be substantial. Establishing actionable and sustainable HAI surveillance can be achieved through simplifying HAI surveillance to match existing capacities and can result in valuable surveillance programs, even in very resource-limited settings.
Background: As of July 1, 2019, ~18% of all cases in the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were healthcare-associated (ie, nosocomial) infections (HAIs) and healthcare worker (HCW) infections. Although progress has been achieved, gaps remained in infection prevention and control (IPC), specifically, a need to reinforce standardized, evidence-based IPC practices to effectively address HAIs. The Ministry of Health (MOH), in collaboration with partners, developed an IPC tool kit consisting of >70 documents (ie, terms of reference, standard operating procedures, training modules, etc) to improve HCW IPC knowledge and practices at healthcare facilities among staff. The tool kit incorporated international IPC standards, DRC-specific experiences, and best practices. Thus, it serves as a technical and operational package, covering general guidance (standard precautions) and EVD specific issues. Methods: A decentralized rollout approach was used to disseminate the tool kit content at the various health-system levels over several months. Initially, national-level training of trainers was held, followed by subnational-level training of IPC supervisors and key IPC implementers, and lastly, training of healthcare facility (HCF) IPC focal persons. The 5-day training adhered to the MOH standard of 60% theory and 40% practice. Participants completed evaluations before and after training; changes in knowledge between the pre- and posttraining tests were analyzed and the results of the statistical tests were reported (P < .05 was considered statistically significant). Results: In total, 294 IPC supervisors were trained across 7 subnational commissions. Data were analyzed for 138 participants. Participants were 60.9% IPC supervisors, 8% WASH supervisors, and 31% others. MOH representation was 52.9% The average results before the test were 66% (19.8 of 30), the average posttest results were 72% (21.6 of 30)—a significant improvement. The worst-performing pretest IPC domain was IPC approach, and facility closure was the worst performing for posttest. As of November 11, 15.7% of all cases were HAIs. Conclusions: The IPC training program initiated during an outbreak can increase knowledge and potentially improve practices and confidence. An association with the downward HAI trend is yet to be validated. The MOH anticipates that this tool kit will be the go-to resource for future Ebola outbreaks and that it will be incorporated into the preservice medical curriculum to ensure a resilient heath system.
Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most prevalent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) globally, contributing to increased morbidity, prolonged hospital stays, and increased healthcare costs. Interventions that support prompt removal of the urinary catheter are evidence-based actions to effectively reduce CAUTI rates.1Objective: At the National Hospital of Tropical Disease (NHTD), catheter removal interventions in the intensive care unit (ICU) were implemented using quality improvement (QI) methodology to reduce CAUTI incidence and urinary catheter device utilization. Methods: Training was performed for ICU clinical staff with knowledge checks before and after the program. A bedside visual reminder of CAUTI risk and checklist to assess catheter need were implemented. Weekly compliance of provided visual reminders and checklists were measured using a simple audit tool. Device utilization ratios (DURs, ratios of device days to patient days), and CAUTI incidence rates (per 1,000 device days) were collected at baseline (July–September 2018) and quarterly thereafter until June 2019. Statistical significance was determined by an independent t test. Results: In the first quarter (October–December 2018), the CAUTI incidence rate decreased from 8.9 to 1.3 per 1,000 device days (P = .036). The ICU staff trained in CAUTI prevention, mean knowledge scores before and after training increased from 68% to 87%. The DUR decreased slightly from 0.59 to 0.55 after the first-quarter training then steadily increased in the following quarter (0.60; January–March 2019) and after the intervention (0.54; April–June 2019). CAUTI incidence rates also increased but were still lower than at baseline: 4.8 and 6.3 per 1,000 days of device use. Compliance of reminders was 51% during the first quarter, increased slightly in the second quarter 62%, then decreased to 40% during the last quarter. The nurses’ adherence to the daily checklist remained stable (>75%). Conclusions: This CAUTI prevention project was the first use of quality improvement methodology to implement change at NHTD. A trend decrease in CAUTI was observed, though a greater decrease occurred at the beginning of the intervention. Limited compliance of daily reminders is likely reflected in no statistically significant decrease in DUR. Possibly, this quality improvement project raised awareness among clinicians to improve general CAUTI prevention practices in the ICU without decreasing DUR. Given limited compliance with reminder and checklists, the intervention will be revised during the next PDSA cycle to improve adherence.
1Meddings J, Rogers MA, Krein SL, Fakih MG, Olmsted RN, Saint S. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review. BMJ Qual Saf 2014;23:277–289.
Background: Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) increase the length of hospital stay, healthcare costs, and patient mortality. Objective: We conducted a quality improvement (QI) approach with plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycle to strengthen adherence to a central-line (CL) maintenance bundle and to reduce CLABSI rate in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of children’s hospital 1 (CH1). Methods: The baseline CLABSI rate per 1,000 CL days and the ratio of CL days to patient days (device utilization ration; DUR) were captured for 12 months preceding the intervention. Baseline process indicators were captured for 2 months preceding implementation, including hand hygiene adherence, sterile technique for dressing change and CL access, CL hub cleaning, dating of CL components and daily chlorhexidine bathing. A multimodal intervention of clinician training, bedside checklist, and poster reminders of best practices was implemented. Process and outcome measures were monitored over 12 months of implementation. Z-test was used to calculate statistical significance before and after intervention. Results: Among 46 clinical ICU staff trained on a CLABSI maintenance bundle, mean pre- and posttest knowledge scores increased from 63% to 86%. Staff adherence to each CL care bundle element improved significantly (P < .001) and sustainably over the intervention period: hand hygiene adherence increased from 54% to 82%; sterile technique for dressing increased from 60% to 94%; sterile technique for CL access increased from 51% to 97%; hub scrubbing increased from 52% to 93%; dating of CL elements increased from 63% to 85%; daily chlorhexidine bathing increased from 52% to 87%. During the first 9 months, the CLABSI rate and the DUR decreased from 5.8 to 3.7 and from 0.43 to 0.41, respectively. In the following 2 months, the CLABSI rate increased to 12.7 while bundle adherence remained high. A root-cause analysis identified inadequate environmental hygiene and use of multidose saline bottles for multiple patients as potential factors. A PDSA cycle to improve these elements (enhanced cleaning; single-patient saline bottles) led to a decrease in the CLABSI rate from 12.7 to 3.0 after these efforts. Conclusions: This is the first time CH1 has used quality improvement methodology to implement an HAI prevention enhancement, which proved effective at creating and sustaining adherence to a multimodal CL maintenance bundle and an overall decrease in CLABSI rates. A 2-month increase in CLABSI rates highlights the unique challenges faced in low-resource settings and demonstrates the need for IPC elements not captured in a typical CLABSI prevention bundle. The quality improvement methodology provided a structured approach to implementing change. This methodology will be used for additional patient safety improvements at CH1 and other Viet Nam hospitals interested in CLABSI prevention.
Background: Antibiotic overuse has led to increasing rates of antibiotic resistant infections and unnecessary antibiotic costs. Clinical pharmacists can play a key role in optimizing appropriate use of antimicrobials and reducing antimicrobial resistance. However, the role of clinical pharmacists in antimicrobial stewardship is new and not well established in Viet Nam. Objective: We evaluated the use of clinical pharmacists for improved antimicrobial prescribing. Methods: We assembled an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) team consisting of a clinical pharmacist and a specialist in infection prevention and control in a 60-bed medical intensive care unit (MICU) at Hue Central Hospital in central Viet Nam. During January–September 2018, the ASP team collected baseline antibiotic prescribing days of therapy (DOT) for all antibiotics administered in the MICU. Then, from October 2018 through June 2019, the ASP team reviewed daily positive clinical bacterial cultures and susceptibility results for all patients present in the MICU. They reviewed medical charts, including antimicrobial prescriptions, during week days and only if patient was still in the ICU at the time of ASP rounds. The team recommended changes to antibiotic therapy verbally to physicians and left the decision to change antibiotic therapy to their discretion. The ASP team documented whether their recommendations were accepted or rejected. Statistical significance was determined using the Student t test. Results: The ASP team reviewed 160 medical charts and made 169 ASP recommendations: 122 (72%) to continue current treatment; 24 (14%) to monitor drug levels or obtain diagnostic tests; 10 (6%) to discontinue therapy; 6 (4%) to de-escalate therapy; 5 (3%) to adjust doses; and 2 (1%) to broaden therapy. Only 8 of the recommended changes (5%) were declined by the clinicians. The average monthly DOT for all types of antibiotics declined significantly from 2,213 to 1,681 (24% decrease; P = .04). Reductions in DOT for the most common broad-spectrum antibiotics included colistin from 303 to 276 (P = .75); imipenem-cilastatin 434 to 248 (P = .06); doripenem 150 to 144 (P = .85). Piperacillin-tazobactam increased from 122 to 142 (P = 0.75). Conclusions: We demonstrated that daily review of cultures and antibiotic use decreased overall antibiotic prescribing. Given that few recommendations included discontinuation of therapy, ASP rounds likely raised awareness for clinicians to optimize antibiotic use.
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