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We conducted a retrospective study of the appropriateness of antimicrobial agents prescribed on discharge from an acute care hospital. Seventy percent of discharge antibiotics were inappropriate in antibiotic drug choice, dose, or duration. Our findings suggest there is a significant need for antimicrobial stewardship at transitions in care.
To determine the impact of total household decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate body wash on recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among subjects with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Three-arm nonmasked randomized controlled trial.
Five academic medical centers in Southeastern Pennsylvania.
Adults and children presenting to ambulatory care settings with community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (ie, index cases) and their household members.
Enrolled households were randomized to 1 of 3 intervention groups: (1) education on routine hygiene measures, (2) education plus decolonization without reminders (intranasal mupirocin ointment twice daily for 7 days and chlorhexidine gluconate on the first and last day), or (3) education plus decolonization with reminders, where subjects received daily telephone call or text message reminders.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Owing to small numbers of recurrent infections, this analysis focused on time to clearance of colonization in the index case.
Of 223 households, 73 were randomized to education-only, 76 to decolonization without reminders, 74 to decolonization with reminders. There was no significant difference in time to clearance of colonization between the education-only and decolonization groups (log-rank P=.768). In secondary analyses, compliance with decolonization was associated with decreased time to clearance (P=.018).
Total household decolonization did not result in decreased time to clearance of MRSA colonization among adults and children with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. However, subjects who were compliant with the protocol had more rapid clearance
To identify risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization.
Prospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012.
Five adult and pediatric academic medical centers.
Subjects (ie, index cases) who presented with acute community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Index cases and all household members performed self-sampling for MRSA colonization every 2 weeks for 6 months. Clearance of colonization was defined as 2 consecutive sampling periods with negative surveillance cultures. Recurrent colonization was defined as any positive MRSA surveillance culture after clearance. Index cases with recurrent MRSA colonization were compared with those without recurrence on the basis of antibiotic exposure, household demographic characteristics, and presence of MRSA colonization in household members.
The study cohort comprised 195 index cases; recurrent MRSA colonization occurred in 85 (43.6%). Median time to recurrence was 53 days (interquartile range, 36–84 days). Treatment with clindamycin was associated with lower risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29–0.93). Higher percentage of household members younger than 18 was associated with increased risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00–1.02). The association between MRSA colonization in household members and recurrent colonization in index cases did not reach statistical significance in primary analyses.
A large proportion of patients initially presenting with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection will have recurrent colonization after clearance. The reduced rate of recurrent colonization associated with clindamycin may indicate a unique role for this antibiotic in the treatment of such infection.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(7):786–793
The major mechanism of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA) is modification of target proteins in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, most commonly the gyrA and parC subunits. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for PSA with and without gyrA or parC mutations.
Two adult academic acute-care hospitals
Case 1 study participants had a PSA isolate on hospital day 3 or later with any gyrA or parC mutation; case 2 study participants had a PSA isolate on hospital day 3 or later without these mutations. Controls were a random sample of all inpatients with a stay of 3 days or more.
Each case group was compared to the control group in separate multivariate models on the basis of demographics and inpatient antibiotic exposure, and risk factors were qualitatively compared.
Of 298 PSA isolates, 172 (57.7%) had at least 1 mutation. Exposure to vancomycin and other agents with extended Gram-positive activity was a risk factor for both cases (case 1 odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.13; OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03–1.26; case 2 OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03–1.14; OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01–1.25, respectively).
Exposure to agents with extended Gram-positive activity is a risk factor for isolation of PSA overall but not for gyrA/parC mutations. FQ exposure is not associated with isolation of PSA with mutations.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0): 1–7
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