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To estimate the associations of individual maternal social capital and social capital dimensions (Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Value of Life and Social Agency, Tolerance of Diversity) with adherence to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a prospective mother–child cohort (Rhea Study). Participants completed a social capital questionnaire and an FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Mediterranean diet adherence was evaluated through an a priori score ranging from 0 to 8 (minimal–maximal adherence). Maternal social capital scores were categorized into three groups: the upper 10 % was the high social capital group, the middle 80 % was the medium and the lowest 10 % was the low social capital group. Multivariable log-binomial and linear regression models adjusted for confounders were performed.
Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
A total of 377 women with singleton pregnancies.
High maternal Total Social Capital was associated with an increase of almost 1 point in Mediterranean diet score (highest v. lowest group: β coefficient=0·95, 95 % CI 0·23, 1·68), after adjustment for confounders. Similar dose–response effects were noted for the scale Tolerance of Diversity (highest v. lowest group: adjusted β coefficient=1·08, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·77).
Individual social capital and tolerance of diversity are associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet in pregnancy. Women with higher social capital may exhibit a higher sense of obligation to themselves and to others that may lead to proactive nutrition-related activities. Less tolerant women may not provide the opportunity to new healthier, but unfamiliar, nutritional recommendations to become part of their regular diet.
To examine the relative validity of an FFQ based on parental report for pre-school children in the mother–child ‘Rhea’ birth cohort.
The children’s mothers completed an FFQ that referred to the children’s dietary intake for the previous year by telephone interview. Mothers completed also three food records, two on weekdays and one on a weekend day. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for the energy-adjusted values. Weighted kappa statistics (κw) and the Bland–Altman technique were used to test the degree of agreement between the two dietary methods.
Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2011–2012.
A total of ninety-nine mothers (corresponding to fifty-one boys and forty-eight girls) participated in the validation study.
The mean and median values of all food group and nutrient intakes did not differ significantly between the two dietary methods. Overall, fair agreement was observed between the FFQ and the food records for ranking participants based on their intake, with κw ranging from 0·21 to 0·40 for most foods and nutrients. On average, 88 % of participants were classified into the same or adjacent tertiles for nutrient and food group intakes by both dietary methods. The degree of agreement was also confirmed by the visual examination of the Bland–Altman plots.
The study indicates that the Rhea 4 years FFQ is a relatively accurate tool for assessing habitual food group and nutrient intakes among pre-school children in Crete, Greece.
To investigate whether high doses of folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy are associated with child neurodevelopment at 18 months of age.
The study uses data from the prospective mother–child cohort ‘Rhea’ study. Pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on folic acid supplementation at 14–18 weeks of gestation. Neurodevelopment at 18 months was assessed with the use of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition). Red-blood-cell folate concentrations in cord blood were measured in a sub-sample of the study population (n 58).
Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2007–2010.
Five hundred and fifty-three mother–child pairs participating in the ‘Rhea’ cohort.
Sixty-eight per cent of the study participants reported high doses of supplemental folic acid use (5 mg/d), while 24 % reported excessive doses of folic acid (>5 mg/d) in early pregnancy. Compared with non-users, daily intake of 5 mg supplemental folic acid was associated with a 5-unit increase on the scale of receptive communication and a 3·5-unit increase on the scale of expressive communication. Doses of folic acid supplementation higher than 5 mg/d were not associated with additional increase in the neurodevelopmental scales.
This is the first prospective study showing that high doses of supplementary folic acid in early pregnancy may be associated with enhanced vocabulary development, communicational skills and verbal comprehension at 18 months of age. Additional longitudinal studies and trials are needed to confirm these results.
To identify and describe dietary patterns in a cohort of pregnant women, and investigate whether dietary patterns during pregnancy are related to postpartum depression (PPD).
The study uses data from the prospective mother–child cohort ‘Rhea’ study. Pregnant women completed an FFQ in mid-pregnancy and the Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) at 8–10 weeks postpartum. Dietary patterns during pregnancy (‘health conscious’, ‘Western’) were identified using principal component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns categorized in tertiles and PPD symptoms were investigated by multivariable regression models after adjusting for confounders.
Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2007–2010.
A total of 529 women, participating in the ‘Rhea’ cohort.
High adherence to a ‘health conscious’ diet, characterized by vegetables, fruit, pulses, nuts, dairy products, fish and olive oil, was associated with lower EPDS scores (highest v. lowest tertile: β-coefficient = −1·75, P = 0·02). Women in the second (relative risk (RR) = 0·52, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·92) or third tertile (RR = 0·51, 95 % CI 0·25, 1·05) of the ‘health conscious’ dietary pattern were about 50 % less likely to have high levels of PPD symptoms (EPDS ≥ 13) compared with those in the lowest tertile.
This is the first prospective study showing that a healthy diet during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk for PPD. Additional longitudinal studies and trials are needed to confirm these findings.
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