To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Normal cardiac function is directly associated with the maintenance of cerebrovascular health. Whether the Mediterranean-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet, designed for the maintenance of neurocognitive health, is associated with cardiac remodelling is unknown. We evaluated 2512 Framingham Offspring Cohort participants who attended the eighth examination cycle and had available dietary and echocardiographic data (mean age 66 years; 55 % women). Using multivariable regression, we related the cumulative MIND diet score (independent variable) to left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, left atrial emptying fraction, LV mass (LVM), E/e’ ratio (dependent variables; primary), global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain (GCS), mitral annular plane systolic excursion, longitudinal segmental synchrony, LV hypertrophy and aortic root diameter (secondary). Adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, higher cumulative MIND diet scores were associated with lower values of indices of LV diastolic (E/e’ ratio: logβ = −0·03) and systolic function (GCS: β = −0·04) and with higher values of LVM (logβ = 0·02), all P ≤ 0·01. We observed effect modification by age in the association between the cumulative MIND diet score and GCS. When we further adjusted for clinical risk factors, the associations of the cumulative MIND diet score with GCS in participants ≥66 years (β = −0·06, P = 0·005) and LVM remained significant. In our community-based sample, relations between the cumulative MIND diet score and cardiac remodelling differ among indices of LV structure and function. Our results suggest that favourable associations between a higher cumulative MIND diet score and indices of LV function may be influenced by cardiometabolic and lifestyle risk factors.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.
Definitive diagnosis of hookworm infection is usually based on the microscopic detection of eggs in a stool sample; however, several cases display a low or irregular egg output. Serodiagnosis can be a useful tool to identify these cases, but conventional tests do not differentiate past from active infections. The aim of this study was to obtain and apply egg yolk polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgY) antibodies to detect immune complexes (ICs) in serum samples from patients infected with hookworm. Hens were immunized with Ancylostoma ceylanicum saline extract, their eggs were collected and then IgY antibodies were extracted and purified. Antibody purity was tested by 12% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and specificity was assessed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. IgY production was evaluated by kinetics enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sandwich ELISA tested the ability of IgY to detect ICs in serum samples, from which diagnostic parameters were calculated. Antibody responses increased steadily from day 7 to 42. In the immunoblotting assay, IgY recognized two protein complexes. The immunofluorescence assay showed no staining in control samples. The sandwich ELISA presented a very high diagnostic value, with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 86.7%. Our pioneer strategy highlights the potential use of egg yolk IgY as a diagnostic test to detect active hookworm infection.
State interventions against organized criminal groups (OCGs) sometimes work to improve security, but often exacerbate violence. To understand why, this article offers a theory about criminal governance in five types of criminal regimes—Insurgent, Bandit, Symbiotic, Predatory, and Split. These differ according to whether criminal groups confront or collude with state actors, abuse or cooperate with the community, and hold a monopoly or contest territory with rival OCGs. Police interventions in these criminal regimes pose different challenges and are associated with markedly different local security outcomes. We provide evidence of this theory by using a multimethod research design combining quasi-experimental statistical analyses, automated text analysis, extensive qualitative research, and a large-N survey in the context of Rio de Janeiro’s “Pacifying Police Units” (UPPs), which sought to reclaim control of the favelas from criminal organizations.
Although accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that immune/inflammatory mechanisms are associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), data about the profile of chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and chemokine receptors are still scarce. The current study was designed to evaluate the expression of chemokine receptors on lymphocytes of patients with BD in comparison with controls.
Thirty-three patients with type I BD (N = 21 in euthymia; N = 6 in mania/hypomania; N = 6 in depression) and 22 age- and sex-matched controls were subjected to clinical evaluation and peripheral blood draw. The expression of chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, CXCR4, and CXCR3 on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was assessed by flow cytometry.
Patients with BD had decreased percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ (p = 0.024), CD4+CCR3+ (p = 0.042), and CD4+CCR5+ (0.013) lymphocytes in comparison with controls. The percentage of both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was similar in patients with BD and controls. Likewise, the percentages of CD8+CXCR3+, CD8+CCR3+, and CD8+CCR5+ lymphocytes were similar in patients with BD and controls.
Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that immune pathways, especially involving CD4+ lymphocytes, are involved in the physiopathology of BD.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.