The noctuid moth Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is the most damaging pest of chickpea worldwide. Plant resistance is an important component for the management of this pest. To develop cultivars with resistance to insects, it is important to understand the role of different components associated with resistance to insects. Therefore, we characterized a diverse array of chickpea genotypes for organic acid profiles in the leaf exudates that are associated with resistance to H. armigera. Chickpea leaf exudates contained five major organic acids that were identified as malic, oxalic, acetic, citric and fumaric acids. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of the leaf exudates of nine chickpea genotypes showed that amounts of malic acid were negatively correlated with leaf feeding by H. armigera larvae at flowering and maturity, and with pod damage. Oxalic acid showed a negative association with leaf damage in the detached leaf assay. Additionally, the amounts of acetic acid were negatively correlated with larval weights and damage rating at the flowering and maturity stages. Citric acid levels were negatively associated with damage rating at the flowering stage. Implications of using the HPLC profiles of organic acids in the leaf exudates of chickpea to breed for resistance to H. armigera are discussed.