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This paper describes the application of low-order models to the prediction of the steady performance of axial compressors at sub-idle conditions. An Euler body-force method employing sub-idle performance correlations is developed and presented alongside a mean-line approach employing the same set of correlations. The low-order tools are used to generate the characteristic lines of the compressor in the locked-rotor and zero-torque windmilling conditions. The results are compared against steady-state operating points from three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The accuracy of the low-order tools in reproducing the results from high-fidelity CFD is analysed, and the trade-off with the computational cost of each method is discussed. The low-order tools presented are shown to offer a fast alternative to traditional CFD which can be used to predict the performance in sub-idle conditions of a new compressor design during early development stages.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric chronic disorder of childhood that persists into adolescence and adulthood in the most part of cases. There are various ways of treating ADHD.
Assess the effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine long-term and routine clinical practice in adult ADHD treatment. Study the clinical profile of the patients who take atomoxetine.
The aim of this is to study the treatment of ADHD in adults with a non-stimulant drug atomoxetine.
We obtain results from 126 patients recruited from July 2009 to May 2013 who have been prescribed Atomoxetine as a treatment for ADHD from the hospital pharmacy.
Comorbid disorders were presented in 57.1% of the patients included at the study (25.3% of which belong to the group of anxiety disorders). The use of other psychotropic drugs associated with atomoxetine was observed in 54.8% of patients. The 62.7% of the patients concerned continued treatment beyond 225 weeks (4 years 3 months) of observation. The Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale (CGI-I) and side effects determine monitoring treatment. A total of 61.9% of patients responded satisfactory to treatment with atomoxetine getting the CGI-I scale a score of 1-2. The duration of therapy and patient age are factors that influence the response. Furthermore, the clinical profile of patients treated with atomoxetine is characterized by different comorbidities, anxious symptomatology and personality disorders. Atomoxetine treatment with has also been shown its effectiveness and safe despite the presence of concomitant comorbidities and psychopharmacological treatment.
Atomoxetine treatment with has been effective and has proven good tolerability profile during treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A new computerized CPG for Major Depression (e-CPG-MD) was integrated in electronic medical records of primary care in a 7 million population in Catalonia (Spain). An integrated design allows precise access in each patient visit, improving diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. It facilitates an evaluation of suicide risk in depressed patients.
To evaluate the effects of a multifactor process of implementation of the e-CPG MD, analyzing its use and the key clinical outcomes.
A cluster randomized clinical trial was performed in 10 primary care centers (PCC) in Barcelona. In five of ten centers a multifaceted implementation process of the e-CPG-MD was developed during 6 month. The others five PCCs received only an usual diffusion. The multifaceted process includes an establishment of local implementation teams, an interactive training program, regular feedback audits, educational outreach visits and periodic reminders.
At six month, a greater proportion of new MD patients from active PCCs were included in the e- CPG-DEP (4.1% + 3.1% vs. 52.7% + 7.3%, p < 0.001); the incidence of MD diagnostics of Major Depression increased significantly (rate quotient = 1.56, p < 0.001) and the proportion of cases with moderate and severe MD too (13.6% vs 41.1%, p = 0.002).
A multifaceted implementation method of an e-CPG-MD increased significantly its uses, the registered incidence of MD and improved the capacity of recognizing severity. Further analysis is necessary in order to determine the impact on clinical outcomes.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites.
The overall sample consisted of 27 001 participants (37.5% males, n = 4251 drawn from the general population). The mean age was 22.12 years (s.d. = 6.28, range 16–55 years). The SPQ was used. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Multilevel CFA (ML-CFA) were used to evaluate the factor structure underlying the SPQ scores.
At the SPQ item level, the nine factor and second-order factor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit. At the SPQ subscale level, three- and four-factor models displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than other CFA models. ML-CFA showed that the intraclass correlation coefficients values were lower than 0.106. The three-factor model showed adequate goodness of fit indices in multilevel analysis. The ordinal α coefficients were high, ranging from 0.73 to 0.94 across individual samples, and from 0.84 to 0.91 for the combined sample.
The results are consistent with the conceptual notion that schizotypal personality is a multifaceted construct and support the validity and utility of SPQ in cross-cultural research. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of our results for diagnostic systems, psychosis models and cross-national mental health strategies.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens, several of which cause neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Studies of the prevalence of these NTD-causing zoonotic pathogens, in house mice and black rats from tropical residential areas are scarce. Three hundred and two house mice and 161 black rats were trapped in 2013 from two urban neighbourhoods and a rural village in Yucatan, Mexico, and subsequently tested for Trypanosoma cruzi, Hymenolepis diminuta and Leptospira interrogans. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected T. cruzi DNA in the hearts of 4·9% (8/165) and 6·2% (7/113) of house mice and black rats, respectively. We applied the sedimentation technique to detect eggs of H. diminuta in 0·5% (1/182) and 14·2% (15/106) of house mice and black rats, respectively. Through the immunofluorescent imprint method, L. interrogans was identified in 0·9% (1/106) of rat kidney impressions. Our results suggest that the black rat could be an important reservoir for T. cruzi and H. diminuta in the studied sites. Further studies examining seasonal and geographical patterns could increase our knowledge on the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico and the risk to public health posed by rodents.
The present study investigated the impact of a western diet during gestation and lactation on the anthropometry, serum biochemical, blood pressure and cardiovascular autonomic control on the offspring. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother’s diet received: control group (C: 18% calories of lipids) and westernized group (W: 32% calories of lipids). After weaning both groups received standard diet. On the 60th day of life, blood samples were collected for the analysis of fasting glucose and lipidogram. Cardiovascular parameters were measured on the same period. Autonomic nervous system modulation was evaluated by spectrum analysis of heart rate (HR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP). The W increased glycemia (123±2 v. 155±2 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein (15±1 v. 31±2 mg/dl), triglycerides (49±1 v. 85±2 mg/dl), total cholesterol (75±2 v. 86±2 mg/dl), and decreased high-density lipoprotein (50±4 v. 38±3 mg/dl), as well as increased body mass (209±4 v. 229±6 g) than C. Furthermore, the W showed higher SAP (130±4 v. 157±2 mmHg), HR (357±10 v. 428±14 bpm), sympathetic modulation to vessels (2.3±0.56 v. 6±0.84 mmHg2) and LF/HF ratio (0.15±0.01 v. 0.7±0.2) than C. These findings suggest that a western diet during pregnancy and lactation leads to overweight associated with autonomic misbalance and hypertension in adulthood.
Cen X-3 was first discovered by Chodil et al. Since then, observations using the UHURU satellite have shown it to be an X-ray pulsar, and it must now have become one of the most searched for objects in the sky. It is both an X-ray pulsar (P~4.8 secs) and an X-ray eclipsing binary (P~2.08712 days).
Zeldovich and Guseynov suggested that neutron stars and collapsed stars (‘Black holes’) may be found as highly evolved companions of single lined spectroscopic binaries. They pointed out that the detection of X-rays or γ-rays from such a system would constitute positive evidence for the highly evolved nature of the companion. Trimble and Thorne searched through the catalogue of orbital elements of spectroscopic binaries (Batten) and found a few systems which were single line spectroscopic binaries with companions of mass M2 ≥ (1.4 M⊙, M1), where M1 is the primary mass. None of these has, however been identified with an X-ray source and other explanations such as multiple systems could not be ruled out. The alternative procedure, namely the identification of galactic X-ray sources with spectroscopic binaries is clearly more rewarding from the view point of searching for black holes and neutron stars. In particular, a high mass secondary which could be identified with a black hole is more likely to be discovered as a companion of an X-ray binary with a massive primary such as a blue supergiant.
Cen X-3 and Her X-1 are the only two X-ray binaries which are known to pulsate periodically (at 4.8s and 1.2s respectively) in the X-ray region. The latter was identified with a fourteenth magnitude light and spectrum variable HZ Her, which was subsequently found to exhibit 1.24 second optical pulsations during certain phases. The possibility that Cen X-3 may prove to be as interesting an object optically has resulted in a wide spread search for its optical counterpart.
The variable X-ray source in the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), SMC X-1 (2U 0115-73) was discovered by Leong et al. (1971). X-ray eclipses with a period of 3.8927 ± 0.0010 days were subsequently reported by Schreier et al. (1972). Identification of the X-ray source with SK 160, star number 160 in the list of Sanduleak (1968), was proposed by Webster et al. (1972) on the basis of the similarity of its spectrum with that of the optical counterpart of Cyg X-1.
Stegophorus macronectes (Johnston & Mawson, 1942) is a gastrointestinal parasite found in Antarctic seabirds. The original description of the species, which was based only on females, is poor and fragmented with some unclear diagnostic characters. This study provides new morphometric and molecular data on this previously poorly described parasite. Nuclear rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions) were isolated from S. macronectes specimens collected from the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica Forster on Deception Island, Antarctica. Using 18S rDNA sequences, phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference) of the order Spirurida were performed to determine the phylogenetic location of this species. Primer pairs of the ITS regions were designed for genus-level identification of specimens, regardless of their cycle, as an alternative to coprological methods. The utility of this molecular method for identification of morphologically altered specimens is also discussed.
A gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch configuration has been used to drive convergent radiative shock waves into different gases at velocities of 20–50 km s−1. On application of the 1.4 MA, 240 ns rise-time current pulse produced by the Magpie generator at Imperial College London, a series of cylindrically convergent shock waves are sequentially launched into the gas-fill from the inner wall of the liner. This occurs without any bulk motion of the liner wall itself. The timing and trajectories of the shocks are used as a diagnostic tool for understanding the response of the liner z-pinch wall to a large pulsed current. This analysis provides useful data on the liner resistivity, and a means to test equation of state (EOS) and material strength models within MHD simulation codes. In addition to providing information on liner response, the convergent shocks are interesting to study in their own right. The shocks are strong enough for radiation transport to influence the shock wave structure. In particular, we see evidence for both radiative preheating of material ahead of the shockwaves and radiative cooling instabilities in the shocked gas. Some preliminary results from initial gas-filled liner experiments with an applied axial magnetic field are also discussed.
The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether temporal variation in environmental factors such as rainfall or temperature influence long-term fluctuations in the prevalence and mean abundance of the nematode Mexiconema cichlasomae in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma uropthalmus and its crustacean intermediate host, Argulus yucatanus. The study was undertaken in a tropical coastal lagoon in the Yucatan Peninsula (south-eastern Mexico) over an 8-year period. Variations in temperature, rainfall and monthly infection levels for both hosts were analysed using time series and cross-correlations to detect possible recurrent patterns. Infections of M. cichlasomae in A. yucatanus showed annual peaks, while in C. urophthalmus peaks were bi-annual. The latter appear to be related to the accumulation of several generations of this nematode in C. urophthalmus. Rainfall and temperature appear to be key environmental factors in influencing temporal variation in the infection of M. cichlasomae over periods longer than a year together with the accumulation of larval stages throughout time.
Recent have shown the relationship between Ecto-Nucleoside-Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolases (Ecto-NTPDases or ecto-nucleotidases) and virulence and infectivity in trypanosomatids. In this work, the inhibition of the ecto-ATPase activities and promastigote growth of Leishmania amazonensis by CrATP was characterized. Furthermore, this compound was used to investigate the role of ecto-nucleotidase in the interaction of L. amazonensis with resident peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c mice. CrATP partially inhibits the ecto-ATPase activity, presenting Ki values of 575·7±199·1 and 383·5±79·0 μm, in the presence or absence of 5 mm MgCl2, respectively. The apparent Kms for ATP (2·9±0·5 mm to Mg2+-dependent ecto-ATPase and 0·4±0·2 mm to Mg2+-independent ecto-ATPase activities) are not significantly altered by CrATP, suggesting a reversible non-competitive inhibition of both enzymes. When CrATP was added to the cultivation medium at 500 μm, it drastically inhibited the cellular growth. The interaction of promastigote forms of L. amazonensis with BALB/c peritoneal macrophages is strongly affected by CrATP. When the parasites were treated with 500 μm CrATP before interacting with macrophages, the adhesion and endocytic indices were strongly reduced to 53·0±14·8% and 39·8±1·1%, respectively. These results indicate that ecto-nucleotidase plays an important role in the infection process caused by Leishmania amazonensis.
Collimated outflows (jets) are ubiquitous in the universe, appearing around sources as diverse as protostars and extragalactic supermassive black holes. Jets are thought to be magnetically collimated, and launched from a magnetized accretion disk surrounding a compact gravitating object. We have developed the first laboratory experiment to address time-dependent, episodic phenomena relevant to the poorly understood jet acceleration and collimation region (Ciardi et al., 2009). The experiments were performed on the MAGPIE pulsed power facility (1.5 MA, 250 ns) at Imperial College. The experimental results show the periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities. The results provide a unique view of the possible transition from a relatively steady-state jet launching to the observed highly structured outflows.
With the aim to model jets produced by conical wire arrays on the MAGPIE generator, and to strengthen the link between laboratory and astrophysical jets, we performed three-dimensional magneto-hydro-dynamic numerical simulations using the code GORGON and successfully reproduced the experiments. We found that a minimum resolution of ~100 μm is required to retrieve the unstable character of the jet. Moreover, arrays with less wires produce more unstable jets with stronger magnetic fields around them.
Switched systems are described by a set of continuous state-space models together with conditions that decide which model of this set is valid for the current continuous state. As an extension of the classical linear or affine state-space representations of dynamical systems, this modelling formalism has been thoroughly investigated, as this chapter shows. The identification of the model parameters, observability, and stability analysis as well as methods for stabilization and control of switched systems are surveyed. As shown in the last section, many analysis and design problems for switched systems have a high computational complexity or are even undecidable.
Definition of the system class
Switched systems represent a type of model of hybrid systems that has been studied extensively. The reason for this research activity is given by the fact that this class of systems is very close to “non-hybrid” systems and an extension of the theory of continuous systems towards hybrid systems is, therefore, rather straightforward. Nevertheless, this system class already exhibits several important phenomena of hybrid dynamical systems.
The basic representation format is the state-space model
which describes the dynamical behavior of the system for the input u ∈ ℝm and the operation mode q ∈ Q. The vector field f and the output function g are assumed to be Lipschitz continuous with respect to x and u so that for a fixed operation mode q solutions to the state-space model exist.
In this paper, we aimed to explore the effects of the calpain inhibitor III (MDL28170) and to detect calpain-like molecules (CALPs) in epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi isolate Dm28c. MDL28170 at 70 μM promoted a powerful reduction in the growth rate after 48 h. The IC50 value was calculated to be 31·7 μM. This inhibitor promoted an increase in the cellular volume, but not cell lysis, resulting in a trypanostatic effect. T. cruzi CALPs presented a strong cross-reactivity with anti-Drosophila melanogaster calpain and anti-cytoskeleton-associated protein from Trypanosoma brucei antibodies, and labelling was found mainly intracellularly. Furthermore, an 80 kDa reactive protein was detected by Western blotting assays. No significant cross-reactivity was found with anti-human brain calpain antibody. The expression of CALPs was decreased in cells kept for long periods in axenic cultures in comparison to a strain recently isolated from mice, as well as in MDL28170-treated cells, the latter being paralleled by an increased expression of cruzipain. Different levels of CALPs expression were also detected in distinct phylogenetic lineages, like Y strain (lineage TCI), Dm28c (TCII) and INPA6147 strain (Z3 zymodeme). These results may contribute for the investigation of the functions of CALPs in trypanosomatids.