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Alpha-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP) is a synthetic cathinone with uneven distribution throughout the world. Its use is not uniformly regulated and its distribution is legal in some European countries. Easily accessible and available through different websites. Synthetic cathinones inhibit monoamine transporters which include dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, resulting in increased neurotransmitter synaptic concentration. Ways of administration show wide range regarding latency period. Onset and appearance of symptoms as well as their duration and intensity may fluctuate. A decreasing order of latency (oral, inhaled, sublingual and intravenous) has been reported. α-PHP can result in the appearance of psychiatric symptoms, include among others, intoxication with sensory perception disturbances and α-PHP -induced psychotic episodes.
The aim of our study was to assess the epidemiology, clinical and legal features regarding Alpha-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP).
Review the current bibliography to upgrade the existing knowledge. -Present assorted cases with diverse clinical features. All cases include variability through psychopathological interview, symptoms assessment and treatment response according to rating scales (PANSS, YMRS). -Evaluate different treatment administration ways during acute phase and after hospital discharge.
Differences were observed after hospitalization in the response using diverse rating scales. We used antipsychotics to treat intoxication with sensory perception disturbances and α-PHP -induced psychotic episodes. α-PHP had a negative impact on the quality of life of the patients.
α-PHP is a synthetic cathinone with potential risk to mental health and life of users. It is mandatory to implement common legislation all through the European Union to prevent its use and possible implications on population’s mental health.
Esketamine had been rised as a potential treatment for Resistant Depression, becoming an alternative for the use of Electroconvulsive Therapy. In Spain since 2020, it has been applied for compassionate use but is not widely used. Although Esketamine is defined safe and effective in preliminary studies, there are common side effects which could reduce it use.
Increasing blood pressure has been found commonly in ederly population treated with Esketamine Nasal. Studies showed as very common side effect (10% or more) increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure which is higher in elderly people. Our aim is to show that esketamine is well tolerated and safe in ederly people without increasing blood pressure, although is combinate with oral antidepressant therapy.
Presenting female 65-year-old with 4 years of treatment maintaining a moderate-severe symptoms. Althougt numerous pharmacological strategies have been attempted, with optimal time and maximum doses, which have been progressively withdrawing showing lack of efficacy or appearance of adverse effects. Among the drugs used we find; 11 antidepressants, 3 antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and even lithium, without response after 6 weeks of treatment. Futhermore, patient refusal to receive Electro-Convulsive Therapy. Treating with Esketamine nasal and applying the established guidelines.
Assess the response to Esketamine Nasal with Montgomery-Asberg depression scale (MADRS) we found that decrease the initial score in 26 points. Evaluating blood pressure before and after each time with no increased value.
Concluding esketamine is well tolerated and safe in ederly people without increasing blood pressure. These findings and results should be confirmed with futher studies.
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