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Socioeconomic difficulties affect the cognitive and emotional development of children. However, the focus of prior studies has largely been on poverty and material hardship. This study expands on the existing literature by examining the impact of familial transient financial difficulties during infancy on long-term cognitive and behavioral outcomes.
The National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (79) were used to assess the association between a transient drop in family income by 50% or more (called transient income decline or TID) during the first 3 years of life and later-life Peabody Individual Achievement Math and Reading scores and behavior problem index (BPI) scores (N = 8272–17 348; median assessment age = 9 years). A subsample of matched siblings (N = 2049–4238) was examined to tease out maternal and intra-familial effects.
Exposure to TID predicted increased total and externalizing BPI scores (std. coefficients of 0.10 and 0.09, respectively, p < 0.01) in the overall sample. Among matched siblings, exposure to TID predicted increased total, externalizing, and internalizing BPI scores (std. coefficients of 0.27, 0.25, and 0.23, respectively, p < 0.01).
Familial transient financial difficulties can have long-lasting behavioral effects for infants. The study identifies an early risk factor and at-risk children, thus providing insight into developing early intervention measures for infants to avoid long-term behavioral problems.
Evaluations of molecular mechanisms of dietary plants with their active molecules are essential for the complete exploration of their nutritive and therapeutic value. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus) salad leaves in inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and evaluated their role in modulating the key markers involved in insulin cell signalling and adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Bioactivity-directed purification studies enlightened the additive effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) along with other caffeic acid derivatives present in methanolic extract of C. intybus (CME). Incubation of CME and CGA with 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly enhanced the 2-deoxy-d-3[H]-glucose uptake and inhibited adipogenesis through altering the expressions of insulin signalling and adipogenesis markers. Extending to an in vivo model, the effect of CME was also investigated on insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet with low streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of CME for 2 weeks reinstated the insulin sensitivity along with plasma metabolic profile. The present results demonstrate that the caffeoyl derivatives of chicory salad leaves show promising pharmacological effect on energy homoeostasis via PTP1B inhibition both in vitro and in vivo.
Block copolymers (BCPs) consist of two or more chemically distinct and incompatible polymer chains (or blocks) covalently bonded. Due to the incompatibility and connectivity constraints between the two blocks, diblock copolymers spontaneously self-assemble into microphase-separated nanoscale domains that exhibit ordered 0, 1, 2 or 3 dimensional morphologies at equilibrium. Commonly observed microdomain morphologies in bulk samples are periodic arrangements of lamellae, cylinders, or spheres. Block copolymer lithography refers to the use of these ordered structures in the form of thin films as templates for patterning through selective etching or deposition. The self-assembly and domain orientation of block copolymers on a given substrate is critical to realize block copolymer lithography as a tool for large throughput nanolithography applications. In this work, we survey the morphology of cylinder-forming block copolymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three kind of block copolymers were studied: a) poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS b) poly(styrene-block-methylmethacrylate), PS-b-PMMA and c) poly(styrene-block-dimethylsiloxane) PS-b-PDMS. Block copolymers were dissolved in a neutral solvent for both blocks (toluene) in order to obtain solutions of various concentrations (1 and 1.5 wt %). From these solutions, films were prepared by spin casting on ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin film substrates. Results indicate that PS-b-PFS exhibits chemical and morphological compatibility to the UNCD surface in terms of wetting and domain control. A systematic comparison of self-assembly of these polymers on silicon nitride substrates demonstrates that UNCD thin films would require pre-treatment to be considered as a substrate for BCP lithography.
Thin films of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) of thickness ranging from 15nm-500nm have been deposited on Si3N4(90nm)/Si substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature. These samples have been studied using in situ ion scattering techniques including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to analyze the oxygen distribution and defect chemistry as a function of annealing in various oxidizing and reducing ambient upto 500°C. In addition, the structural quality of these films after long time annealing has been investigated using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). Temperature dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been performed to study the unoccupied density of states and chemical nature of YSZ. In this paper, we will discuss in detail the effects of annealing in different ambient on the defect chemistry, structure and stability of films in these materials systems.
The physics and dynamics of the atmosphere and atmosphere-ocean interactions provide the foundation of modern climate models, upon which our understanding of the chemistry and biology of ocean and land surface processes are built. Originally published in 2006, Frontiers of Climate Modeling captures developments in modeling the atmosphere, and their implications for our understanding of climate change, whether due to natural or anthropogenic causes. Emphasis is on elucidating how greenhouse gases and aerosols are altering the radiative forcing of the climate system and the sensitivity of the system to such perturbations. An expert team of authors address key aspects of the atmospheric greenhouse effect, clouds, aerosols, atmospheric radiative transfer, deep convection dynamics, large scale ocean dynamics, stratosphere-troposphere interactions, and coupled ocean-atmosphere model development. The book is an important reference for researchers and advanced students interested in the forces driving the climate system and how they are modeled by climate scientists.
As the previous chapters have noted, the climate system is forced by a number of factors, e.g., solar impact, the greenhouse effect, etc. For the greenhouse effect, clouds, water vapor, and CO2 are of the utmost importance. The emergence of computers as a viable scientific tool in the 1960s in conjunction with the availability of spectroscopic data enabled us to treat the numerous complexities of infrared-radiative transfer in the atmosphere. While such calculations set the stage for estimating accurately (decades later in the 1990s) the radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases and clouds, they did not yield the necessary insights into the physics of the problem nor did they yield any explanation of the relevant phenomenon. Such insights needed physically based analytic approaches to the problem. It is in this arena that Dr. Robert Cess excelled and provided the community with important insights into numerous radiative processes in the atmosphere of Earth and other planets including Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn. A few examples that are relevant to the main theme of this chapter are given below.
Within the lower atmosphere of many planets (first 10km of Earth; 5km for Mars; and 60 km for Venus) the greenhouse effect is dominated by pressure-broadened vibration–rotational lines (e.g., CO2 and CH4) or pure rotational lines (H2O) of polyatomic gases. Typically, the absorption and emission of radiation occurs in discrete bands with thousands of rotational lines within each band.
In a career that spans over four decades, Robert D. Cess has pioneered the study of diverse topics and disciplines. He first attacked problems dealing with conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer in engineering systems and his contribution to these topics culminated in a classic text book on radiative transfer. The hallmark of this early work is the successful application of singular peturbation techniques to solve complex radiative heat transfer problems. His intellectual curiosity took him to the study of thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. He is one of the very select few (if not the only one) who has solved the thermal structure of almost all of the inner and outer planets of the solar system including Mercury, Mars, Earth, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, and others, including study of the satellites. He was probably the first to obtain an analytical solution for the radiative-convective equilibrium-temperature structure of the troposphere-stratosphere of Mars and Venus.
The latter part of his career has been focused exclusively on Earth, where he has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the physics of climate with a particular focus on processes that regulate the Earth's radiation budget and the mechanisms of cloud feedback processes. He obtained worldwide recognition for a comprehensive comparative study of the nature of water-vapor and cloud feedback processes of over 15 three-dimensional climate models, and brilliantly demonstrated that cloud feedback is the major source for the wide range in climate sensitivity of climate models.
The VO2 phase of vanadium oxide is known to exhibit large changes in the electrical and optical properties in the vicinity of the structural phase transition at 68C. Here, we report on the fabrication and study of thin film vanadium oxide (VO2) devices deposited on R-plane sapphire. Thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation have been processed by photolithography into two-terminal strips for electrical measurements. Measurements on such specimens exhibit reproducibility across a chip, in addition to hysteretic transport, and a one-to-two orders of magnitude change in the resistance in the vicinity of the structural transition. In sum, these experiments show that e-beam evaporation of VO2 constitutes a simple and useful approach to realizing devices from this technologically important material.