To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Increasing evidence suggests that symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could persist into adult life in a substantial proportion of cases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of 1) adverse events, 2) personality traits and 3) genetic variants chosen on the basis of previous findings and 4) their possible interactions on adult ADHD severity in a sample of 110 Caucasian patients.
One hundred and ten individuals diagnosed with adult ADHD were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events in childhood and adulthood, and personality traits by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Common polymorphisms within a set of nine important candidate genes (SLC6A3, DBH, DRD4, DRD5, HTR2A, CHRNA7, BDNF, PRKG1 and TAAR9) were genotyped for each subject. Life events, personality traits and genetic variations were analyzed in relationship to severity of current symptoms, evaluated by the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS).
Genetic variations were not significantly associated with severity of ADHD symptoms and life stressors displayed only a minor effect as compared to personality traits. Indeed, symptoms’ severity was significantly correlated with the temperamental trait of Harm avoidance and the character trait of Self directedness.
The results of the present work are in line with previous evidence of a significant correlation between some personality traits and adult ADHD. However, several limitations such as the small sample size and the exclusion of patients with other severe comorbid psychiatric disorders could have influenced the significance of present findings.
Childhood Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology persists in a substantial proportion of cases into adult life. ADHD is highly heritable but the etiology of ADHD is complex and heterogeneous, involving both genetic and non-genetic factors. In the present paper we analyzed the influence of both genetics and adverse life events on severity of ADHD symptoms in 110 adult ADHD patients. Subjects were genotyped for the norepinephrine transporter (NET), the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (SERTPR) and the more rare A/G variant within SERTPR. Three main outcomes were obtained: (1) adverse events showed a small but positive correlation with current ADHD severity; (2) NET, COMT and the A/G variant within SERTPR were not associated with ADHD severity; (3) taking into account stressors, the long (L) SERTPR variant showed a mild effect on ADHD, being associated with an increased severity, particularly as regard affective dysregulations; on the other hand, in subjects exposed to early stressors, it showed a protective effect, as compared to the S variant (see table). In conclusion, our data support the role of environmental factors in adult ADHD symptomatology. SERTPR may be involved in some features of the illness and act as a moderator of environmental influences in ADHD.
To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of Amplatzer vascular plug II in large and elongated ducts in infants.
Patent arterial duct device closure is technically challenging in infants with large and elongated ducts because Amplatzer duct occluder and Amplatzer duct occluder II have high chances of causing aortic coarctation and left pulmonary artery stenosis, respectively. The Amplatzer vascular plug II being soft with no retention discs on either sides helps in mitigating these problems.
This is a prospective, observational study involving infants with clinical, echocardiographic and angiographic evidence of large left to right shunt. All the children underwent duct closure using Amplatzer vascular plug II.
Eighteen infants qualified for the study. Mean age and weight were 8.63 ± 3.84 months and 6.3 ± 1.7 kg, respectively. The angiographic mean duct diameter at the pulmonary artery end was 4.66 ± 0.92 mm, and the mean duct length was 9.4 ± 2.48 mm. The size of Amplatzer vascular plug II used varied from 6 mm to 10 mm. Technical success was achieved in 16/18 cases. One patient had device embolisation, and in the other, the device was found to be unstable. The ratio of Amplatzer vascular plug II size to the duct diameter was 1.65 ± 0.27, while the ratio of ductal length to device length was 1.48 ± 0.46 in those with successful outcome.
Amplatzer vascular plug II is a safe and effective option in appropriately selected infants with elongated ducts. Diameter and length of Amplatzer vascular plug II vis-a-vis those of the ductus are important determinants of the successful outcome.
To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
Ferroelectric single-crystal-architecture-in-glass is a new class of metamaterials that would enable active integrated optics if the ferroelectric behavior is preserved within the confines of glass. We demonstrate using lithium niobate crystals fabricated in lithium niobosilicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation that not only such behavior is preserved, the ferroelectric domains can be engineered with a DC bias. A piezoresponse force microscope is used to characterize the piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior. The piezoresponse correlates with the orientation of the crystal lattice as expected for unconfined crystal, and a complex micro- and nano-scale ferroelectric domain structure of the as-grown crystals is revealed.
Design and development of 2 kW, 3 dB tandem hybrid coupler for the frequency range of 155–225 MHz has been presented in this paper. The developed 3 dB coupler is to be used in a prototype of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) system of Tokamak, which has been developed to test the resilience of ICRF network during continuously variable RF load excursions. The 3 dB coupler divides the RF power between two antennae of the prototype and protects the RF source by coupling of reflected power to the isolated port. The developed coupler shows excellent coupling flatness of −3 ± 0.3 dB over 38% of fractional bandwidth and also provides voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) <1.3, isolation better than 32 dB and return loss better than 25 dB in full band. The presented work establishes a technique which can be useful for the development of high-power hybrid coupler in the range of high frequency (HF), very high frequency (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF).
In this work, we present an oxygen-releasing insole to treat diabetic foot ulcers. The insole consists of two layers of polydimethylsiloxane: the top layer has selective laser-machined areas (to tune oxygen permeability) targeting the ulcerated foot region, while the bottom layer provides structural support and incorporates a chamber for oxygen storage. When loaded with a pressure of 150 kPa (average value for standing/walking), the insole is able to release oxygen at a rate of 1.8 mmHg/min/cm2. At lower sitting pressures, the delivery rate persists at 0.092 mmHg/min/cm2, raising the oxygen level to an optimal healing value (50 mmHg) for a 2 × 2 cm2 wound within 150 min.
Background: Recent advances in neurophysiological techniques have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of Huntington’s disease (HD). Studies of the motor cortical excitability and central motor pathways have shown variable results. Objectives: Our aims were to evaluate the cortical excitability changes in HD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and correlate the changes with cognitive impairment. Methods: The study included 32 HD patients and 30 age- and gender-matched controls. The demographic and clinical profiles of the patients were recorded. All subjects were evaluated by TMS and resting motor threshold (RMT), central motor conduction time (CMCT), silent period (SP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation were determined. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to all subjects. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.1±14.1 years, and that of controls 39.4±12.4 years (p=0.61). There was no significant difference in RMT and CMCT between the two groups. There was a mild prolongation of the contralateral SP in HD, but it was not significant. SICI was significantly reduced in HD (p<0.0001). A significant impairment in attention, verbal fluency, executive function, visuospatial function, learning, and memory was observed in HD patients. However, there was no correlation between cortical excitability changes and cognitive impairment. Conclusions: TMS is a valuable method of evaluating cortical excitability changes in HD. These patients have reduced SICI and significant impairment of cognition in multiple domains.
The burden of dengue virus infections increased globally during recent years. Though India is considered as dengue hyper-endemic country, limited data are available on disease epidemiology. The present study includes molecular characterization of dengue virus strains occurred in Hyderabad, India, during the year 2014. A total of 120 febrile cases were recruited for this study, which includes only children and 41 were serologically confirmed for dengue positive infections using non-structural (NS1) and/or IgG/IgM ELISA tests. RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing and evolutionary analyses were carried out to identify the circulating serotypes/genotypes. The data indicated a high percent of severe dengue (63%) in primary infections. Simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes and co-infections were observed for the first time in Hyderabad, India. In total, 15 patients were co-infected with more than one dengue serotype and 12 (80%) of them had severe dengue. One of the striking findings of the present study is the identification of serotype Den-1 as the first report from this region and this strain showed close relatedness to the Thailand 1980 strains but not to any of the strains reported from India until now. Phylogenetically, all four strains of the present study showed close relatedness to the strains, which are reported to be high virulent.
Genetic diversity and relationship of 92 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes from India and exotic collections were examined using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotypic traits to identify new sources of diversity that could accelerate the development of improved wheat varieties better suited to meet the challenges posed by heat stress in India. Genetic diversity assessed by using 82 SSR markers was compared with diversity evaluated using five physiological and six agronomic traits under the heat stress condition. A total of 248 alleles were detected, with a range of two to eight alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content value was 0.37, with a range of 0.04 (cfd9) to 0.68 (wmc339). The heat susceptibility index was determined for grain yield per spike, and the genotypes were grouped into four categories. Two dendrograms that were constructed based on phenotypic and molecular analysis using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) were found to be topologically different. Genotypes characterized as highly heat tolerant were distributed among all the SSR-based cluster groups. This implies that the genetic basis of heat stress tolerance in these genotypes is different, thereby enabling wheat breeders to combine these diverse sources of genetic variability to improve heat tolerance in their breeding programmes.
Forage sorghum is an important component of the fodder supply chain in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world because of its high productivity, ability to utilize water efficiently and adaptability to a wide range of climatic conditions. Identification of high-yielding stable genotypes (G) across environments (E) is challenging because of the complex G × E interactions (GEI). In the present study, the performance of 16 forage sorghum genotypes over seven locations across the rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011 was investigated using GGE biplot analysis. Analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant GEI for fodder yield and all eight associated phenotypic traits. Location accounted for a higher proportion of the variation (0·72–0·91), while genotype contributed only 0·06–0·21 of total variation in different traits. Genotype-by-location interactions contributed 0·02–0·13 of total variation. Promising genotypes for fodder yield and each of the associated traits could be identified effectively using a graphical biplot approach. The majority of test locations were highly correlated. A ‘Which-won-where’ study partitioned the test locations into two mega-environments (MEs): ME1 was represented by five locations with COFS 29 as the best genotype, while ME2 had two locations with S 541 as the best genotype. The existence of two MEs suggested a need for location-specific breeding. Genotype-by-trait biplots indicated that improvement for forage yield could be achieved through indirect selection for plant height, leaf number and early vigour.
Growth acceleration or catch-up growth (CUG) in early infancy is a plausible risk factor for later obesity and cardiovascular disease. We postulate that this risk may be mediated by an adverse programming of body composition by CUG in early infancy. The study was aimed at evaluating the association between the pattern of gain in weight and length of term low birth weight (LBW) infants from birth to 6 months, with fat mass percent (FM%) at 6 months. Term healthy singleton LBW infants were enrolled. Baby’s weight and length z-scores were measured at birth and three follow-up visits. Body composition was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry at last visit. A total of 54 babies (28 boys) were enrolled. The mean birth weight and gestation were 2175±180 g and 37.6±0.6 weeks. Follow-up visits were at 1.4±0.0, 3.0±0.3 and 7.2±0.8 months. The proportion of babies who showed CUG [increase in weight for age z-score (∆WAZ)>0.67] from birth to 1.4, 3.0 and 7.2 months was 29.6, 26.4 and 48.5%, respectively. The mean FM% at 7.2 months was 16.6±7.8%. Infants with greater ∆WAZ from birth to 3 and 7.2 months had significantly greater FM% at 7.2 months after adjusting for current age, size and gender. Infants with early CUG (<1.4 months) had higher FM% than infants with no CUG. We conclude that earlier and greater increment in WAZ is positively associated with FM%.
As the need for smaller data storage devices in the market continues to grow, the study of new combinations of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles/films is greatly needed. In this research, Fe50-Ni50 films were synthesized using a Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and physical properties measurement system (PPMS). Films were deposited from Fe-Ni alloy target (50%-50% composition), deposition was conducted in vacuum, at substrate temperatures varying from liquid nitrogen temperature -196°C to 600°C. The films were annealed in a vacuum chamber at 600°C for 1 hour. The study reveals that the substrate temperature has significant effect on the structure of the films and their magnetic properties. It was shown that additional thermal treatment improved the quality of films in terms of narrow grain size distribution. Magnetic properties were also found to improve significantly after post annealing process.
This paper describes the organometallic synthesis of pure rhenium nanoparticles (Re NPs) and their characterization by a combination of state-of-the art techniques (TEM, HAADF-STEM, EDX, WAXS, EA, FT-IR). The Re NPs synthesis is achieved by reducing the [Re2(C3H5)4] complex in solution under a dihydrogen atmosphere and in the presence of hexadecylamine or polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilizing agents. The so-obtained Re NPs are monodisperse with a mean size of 1.1 nm (0.3) nm and display a spherical shape with a disordered hcp structure.
The present work addresses the systematic evaluation of the influence of the incorporation of dopant species (Ca+2, Ag+1) on the structural and functional properties of bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanocrystalline powders and films. Pure and doped BFO powders and thin films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The concentration of the doping species varied from 0 up to 7 at %. The development of the host BFO structure was confirmed by XRD analyses of samples annealed at 700°C for one hour in air and nitrogen atmosphere. Thicknesses of films varied between 80 and 200 nm, depending on the concentration of Ca+2 species. Doped BFO exhibited a magnetic behavior that turned from paramagnetic into ferrimagnetic with the increase of Ca+2 concentrations.
Soft lithographic printing techniques can be used to print nanoparticle dispersions with relative ease while allowing for a measureable degree of controllability of printed feature size. In this study, a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp was used to print multi-layered, porous, nanoparticle dispersions of titanium dioxide (TiO2), for use in a dye-sensitized solar cell application. The gelled patterns were then sintered and the surface of the printed sample was chemically analyzed.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface constituents of the printed sample. The presence of a secondary peak feature located approximately 2.8 eV above the high resolution O1s core level binding energy peak was attributed to a contamination layer. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) of the printed sample revealed the presence of vibrational modes characteristic of the asymmetric bond stretching of silica, located at approximate wavenumbers of 1260 and 1030 cm-1.
Soft lithographic techniques are a viable manufacturing technique in a number of disciplines and sintered nano-oxide dispersions are readily used as reaction centers in a number of technologies. The presence of a residual, bonded silicate contamination layer may preclude the soft lithographic printing of chemically active oxide surfaces.
Due to the rapid advance of the emergence of resistant microorganisms to different antibiotics, there is a need to create new antimicrobial agents. It is possible that Nanotechnology has a great impact in this area since the nanoparticles can improve the antimicrobial effect of the antibiotics. In this study we used three different metal oxides nanoparticles, the MgO, ZnO and CuO. These nanoparticles were selected because their interactions leading to cell death and their optical properties. The aim of this study is to develop new methods that are more effective against resistance bacteria, developing antibacterial agents using different nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145), and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC BAA-1026). This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effects of a combination of nanoparticles together with different concentrations of three antibiotics, Gentamicin, Cephalexin and Co-Trimoxazole. The results showed that some nanoparticles are effective to inhibit growth in these microorganisms by increasing the effectiveness of the antibiotic. Therefore, the present study indicates that the combination of the nanoparticles with antibiotics may be applicable as a new antimicrobial agent.