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Patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis (ANMDARE) show a wide range of behavioral abnormalities and are often mistaken for primary psychiatric presentations. We aimed to determine the behavioral hallmarks of ANMDARE with the use of systematic neuropsychiatric and cognitive assessments.
A prospective study was conducted, with 160 patients admitted to the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico, who fulfilled criteria for possible autoimmune encephalitis and/or red flags along a time window of seven years. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR were processed with rat brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays with NMDA expressing cells. Systematic cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and functional assessments were conducted before knowing NMDAR antibodies results. A multivariate analysis was used to compare patients with and without definite ANMDARE according to antibodies in CSF.
After obtaining the CSF antibodies results in 160 consecutive cases, 100 patients were positive and classified as having definite ANMDARE. The most frequent neuropsychiatric patterns were psychosis (81%), delirium (75%), catatonia (69%), anxiety-depression (65%), and mania (27%). Cognition was significantly impaired. A total of 34% of the patients had a predominantly neuropsychiatric presentation without seizures. After multivariate analysis, the clinical hallmarks of ANMDARE consisted of a catatonia–delirium comorbidity, tonic-clonic seizures, and orolingual dyskinesia.
Our study supports the notion of a neurobehavioral phenotype of ANMDARE characterized by a fluctuating course with psychotic and affective symptoms, catatonic signs, and global cognitive dysfunction, often accompanied by seizures and dyskinesia. The catatonia–delirium comorbidity could be a distinctive neurobehavioral phenotype of ANMDARE.
All Pseudocorynosoma species inhabit freshwater environments of the American continent, but little is known about their life cycles. We report Pseudocorynosoma enrietti (Molfi & Freitas Fernandes, 1953) from natural and experimental specimens in Patagonia and identify the intermediate and definitive hosts of its life cycle for the first time in South America. Adult worms were recovered from Anas platyrhynchos (Linnaeus) and from a new definitive host, Coscoroba coscoroba Molina. Naturally infected amphipods, Hyalella patagonica Ortmann, were collected to obtain cystacanths that were fed to Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus) and Anas platyrhynchos. Specimens of P. enrietti are described in detail using light and scanning electron microscopy. A key to species of the genus Pseudocorynosoma is included. Worms are characterized in both sexes by fore-trunk spines, and genital spines in an isolated field. The proboscis has 19–20 hook rows; males have 9–11 (10) hooks per row and females 7–9 (8). Males with four cement glands similar in size. Eggs elongated, with filaments. Experimental male and female worms were recovered from A. platyrhynchos at seven and 14 days, post-infection.
A checklist of larval digeneans parasitising molluscs from inland waters of Argentina is presented here. Based on the bibliographical survey of 113 scientific articles and nine theses published between 1930 and 2021, 213 digeneans were found, which were distributed within 13 superfamilies and 35 families. The parasites were identified in 102 locations, encompassing eight of the sixteen biogeographical provinces in Argentina. Digeneans were found in 34 mollusc species (31 gastropods and three bivalves) belonging to 17 genera. The available data are presented for each digenean species, and included host information, localities, prevalence values, type of habitat, life cycle information (natural or experimental host), and information on material and genetic sequences deposited in repositories. Only 21.1% of individuals were identified to species level, and 8.5% to genus level. In addition, the genetic sequences of only 10 species (4.7%) were available at GenBank. This survey constitutes the first checklist of parasitic helminths in molluscs from inland waters of Argentina.
This paper provides detailed anatomy and histochemistry of the leaves and stems of Eucalyptus tereticornis illustrated with brightfield and scanning electron microscopy. The key microscopic features that can aid in the species identification include the presence of crust-like epicuticular waxes on the leaf surfaces, platy aggregations of cluster crystals in the epidermal cells, presence of prismatic crystals in the epidermal cells, in the parenchymatous sheath in the blade and petiole, and in the cortex and pith of the stems, and leaf homogenous mesophyll consisting of palisade cells. Histochemical analyses confirmed the presence of lipophilic and phenolic compounds in the contents of secretory cavities, starch grains in the xylem parenchyma of the stem, and lignified elements in the sclerenchymatous ring adjoining the phloem and in the xylem in the leaves and stems.
Introduction: Dietary habits are established from a very young age. Parental role modeling is an important factor influencing the eating behavior of their children. Drinking behavior may have an impact in the development of childhood obesity. This study aimed to explore the correlations of core drinking beverages between parents and their children.
Materials and Methods: The present study included children of 3.5–5.5 years and their parents from the (Multifactorial evidence-based approach using behavioral models in understanding and promoting fun, healthy food, play and policy for the prevention of obesity in early childhood) ToyBox study. The study was a kindergarten-based family-involved intervention, in preschool children from six European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain. For this study, we analyzed data from the baseline cross-sectional survey.
Data on consumption frequency of water, homemade or fresh fruit juice, prepacked fruit juice, light beverages and sugared sweetened beverages consumption from parents and their children was obtained via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Parents were given examples of serving sizes and asked about how to self-report their usual consumption per day or week. Beverage consumption of children was reported by their parents and information about frequency and portion sizes was collected. Body weight and height of children was measured and classified according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Bivariate correlations were performed to analyze beverage consumption (servings per day) in children and their parents.
Results: The studied sample included 5266 pairs of children (49.2% girls) and parents (91.7% women) that were included in the analysis.
Girls presented higher correlations in water (r2 = 0,317) and sugar sweetened beverages (r2 = 0,302), whereas boys, presented slightly higher correlations of light soft drinks (r2 = 0,273), pure fruit juices (r2 = 0,308) and prepacked fruit juices (r2 = 0,324), all of them at < 0.01 level of significance. Considering boys and girls together, a slightly higher significant correlation coefficients were found between children-parents’ dyads with overweight/obesity compared to normal weight children-parentś for sugar sweetened beverages (r2 = 0,303) and light soft drinks (r2 = 0,396).
Discussion: Beverage consumption of children and their parents were found to be moderately correlated. Overweight children seem to have better correlations with their parents in relation of sugar sweetened beverages and light soft drinks. Parents should encourage a healthy beverage consumption for their own health and most important, because there are key role models to their children.
Centrorynchus nahuelhuapensis n. sp. is described from the intestine of Strix rufipes, the rufous-legged owl, in Patagonia, Argentina. This species is characterized by the presence of 31–33 hook rows with 16–17 hooks per row, distributed as follows: 5 true hooks, 4 transitional hooks with 4 alate processes, more evident in the first three, 7–8 spiniform hooks, and three cement glands. It differs from most members of the genus by having a filiform body, the arrangement and size of the hooks, the number of cement glands, and egg size. Part of the SSU and LSU genes were sequenced and compared to those in GenBank. Sequences are most similar to other species of Centrorhynchus, supporting their placement within this genus. We present the first molecular study for a species of Centrorhynchus from South America. Additionally, it is the second species of the genus described in Argentina, and the first species of a terrestrial acanthocephalan from a bird in Patagonia.
The pestiviruses bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), 2 (BVDV-2), and HoBi-like (HoBiPeV) are endemic among Brazilian cattle, the world's largest commercial bovine herd. In the last two decades (1998–2018) over 300 bovine pestiviruses have been partially or fully sequenced in Brazil, including viruses from different regions, different epidemiological backgrounds, and associated with diverse clinical presentations. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses demonstrated a predominance of BVDV-1 (54.4%), with subgenotypes −1a (33.9% of total) and −1b (16.3%) being more frequent and subgenotypes −1d, −1e, and −1i at very low frequencies. The overall BVDV-2 frequency was 25.7% but it varied largely by region, reaching up to 48% in Southern states. BVDV-2b was the predominant subgenotype (84.8% of BVDV-2), followed by BVDV-2a (8.86%). HoBiPeV accounted for 19.9% (61/307) of the genotyped viruses and were detected at high frequency in cattle from Northeastern states. These findings demonstrate a unique mix of pestivirus species and subgenotypes, unlike that seen in Europe or North America. The design of effective diagnostic tools, vaccines, and control programs for limiting bovine pestivirus infections in Brazil must take into consideration this unique mix of viruses. This article provides a critical review of two decades of genetic identification of pestiviruses in Brazil.
People with psychotic disorders face impairments in their global functioning and their quality of life (QoL). The relationship between the two outcomes has not been systematically investigated. Through a systematic review, we aim to explore the presence and extent of associations between global functioning and QoL and establish whether associations depend on the instruments employed.
In May 2016, ten electronic databases were searched using a two-phase process to identify articles in which associations between global functioning and QoL were assessed. Basic descriptive data and correlation coefficients between global functioning and QoL instruments were extracted, with the strength of the correlation assessed according to the specifications of Cohen 1988. Results were reported with reference to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and PRISMA standards. A narrative synthesis was performed due to heterogeneity in methodological approaches.
Of an initial 15 183 non-duplicate articles identified, 756 were deemed potentially relevant, with 40 studies encompassing 42 articles included. Fourteen instruments for measuring global functioning and 22 instruments for measuring QoL were used. Twenty-nine articles reported linear associations while 19 assessed QoL predictors. Correlations between overall scores varied in strength, primarily dependent on the QoL instrument employed, and whether QoL was objectively or subjectively assessed. Correlations observed for objective QoL measures were consistently larger than those observed for subjective measures, as were correlations for an interviewer than self-assessed QoL. When correlations were assessed by domains of QoL, the highest correlations were found for social domains of QoL, for which most correlations were moderate or higher. Global functioning consistently predicted overall QoL as did depressive and negative symptoms.
This review is the first to explore the extent of associations between global functioning and QoL in people with psychotic disorders. We consistently found a positive association between global functioning and QoL. The strength of the association was dependent on the QoL instrument employed. QoL domains strongly associated with global functioning were highlighted. The review illustrates the extensive array of instruments used for the assessment of QoL and to a lesser extent global functioning in people with psychotic disorders and provides a framework to understand the different findings reported in the literature. The findings can also inform the future choice of instruments by researchers and/or clinicians. The observed associations reassure that interventions for improving global functioning will have a positive impact on the QoL of people living with a psychotic disorder.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus linked to mucosal and cutaneous carcinogenesis. More than 200 different HPV types exist. We carried out a transversal study to investigate the prevalence of HPV types in two regions of Mexico. A total of 724 genital and non-genital samples from women (F) and men (M) were studied; 241 (33%) from North-Eastern (NE) and 483 (66%) from South-Central (SC) Mexico. The overall prevalence was 87%. In genital lesions from females, the NE group showed a prevalence of HPV types 16 (37%), 6 (13%), 59 (6%), 11, 18 and 66 (5.4% each); and the SC group showed types 6 (17%), 16 (15%), 11 (14.5%), 18 (12%) and 53 (6%). In the genital lesions from males, NE group showed types 16 (38%), 6 (21%), 11 (13%) and 59 plus 31 (7.5%) and the SC group showed types 6 (25%), 11 (22%), 18 (17%) and 16 (11.5%). When the two regions were compared, a higher prevalence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 was found in the SC region and of high-risk HPV 59, 31 and 66 (the latter can also be present in benign lesions) in the NE region. Our findings complement efforts to understand HPV demographics as a prerequisite to guide and assess the impact of preventive interventions.
The Learning Health System Network clinical data research network includes academic medical centers, health-care systems, public health departments, and health plans, and is designed to facilitate outcomes research, pragmatic trials, comparative effectiveness research, and evaluation of population health interventions.
The Learning Health System Network is 1 of 13 clinical data research networks assembled to create, in partnership with 20 patient-powered research networks, a National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network.
Results and Conclusions
Herein, we describe the Learning Health System Network as an emerging resource for translational research, providing details on the governance and organizational structure of the network, the key milestones of the current funding period, and challenges and opportunities for collaborative science leveraging the network.
Three methacrylic polymers bearing (phenylene)azobenzene moieties in the side-chain were synthesized via free-radical polymerization of monomer (E)-6-(4-((3’-cyano-4’-(hexyloxy) -[1,1’- biphenyl]-4-yl) diazenyl) phenoxy) hexyl methacrylate using 1, 5 and 10 mol% of 1,1’-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) (ABCN) as initiator. The chemical structures of monomer and polymers were confirmed by 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. Analysis by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed average molecular weights (Mw) of 1.0x105, 7.3x104, and 4.5x104 g/mol for polymers P1%, P5%, and P10%, respectively. These results indicate a clear dependence of the Mw on the amount of initiator used; the higher the amount of ABCN, the lowest the molecular mass. Thermotropic liquid-crystalline properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). All polymers showed a liquid-crystalline behavior over a wide range of temperatures (>100°C) displaying smectic type mesophases. A small shift (around 8°C) upwards in the clearing temperature was observed on increasing the molecular masses from P10% to P1%. The trans-cis photo-isomerization of polymers was studied in solution and in thin films by UV-Vis spectroscopy. High cis-isomer contents in solution (>90%) were reached in relative short irradiation times.
The aim of this study was to monitor the spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence in Spain during the 2009 pandemic and the following two influenza seasons 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 using a Bayesian Poisson mixed regression model; and implement this model of geographical analysis in the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System to obtain maps of influenza incidence for every week. In the pandemic wave the maps showed influenza activity spreading from west to east. The 2010–2011 influenza epidemic wave plotted a north-west/south-east pattern of spread. During the 2011–2012 season the spread of influenza was geographically heterogeneous. The most important source of variability in the model is the temporal term. The model of spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence is a supplementary tool of influenza surveillance in Spain.
Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = −0.191 mm per 1 μg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = −0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = −0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = −0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract.
Several European countries have timely all-cause mortality monitoring. However, small changes in mortality may not give rise to signals at the national level. Pooling data across countries may overcome this, particularly if changes in mortality occur simultaneously. Additionally, pooling may increase the power of monitoring populations with small numbers of expected deaths, e.g. younger age groups or fertile women. Finally, pooled analyses may reveal patterns of diseases across Europe. We describe a pooled analysis of all-cause mortality across 16 European countries. Two approaches were explored. In the ‘summarized’ approach, data across countries were summarized and analysed as one overall country. In the ‘stratified’ approach, heterogeneities between countries were taken into account. Pooling using the ‘stratified’ approach was the most appropriate as it reflects variations in mortality. Excess mortality was observed in all winter seasons albeit slightly higher in 2008/09 than 2009/10 and 2010/11. In the 2008/09 season, excess mortality was mainly in elderly adults. In 2009/10, when pandemic influenza A(H1N1) dominated, excess mortality was mainly in children. The 2010/11 season reflected a similar pattern, although increased mortality in children came later. These patterns were less clear in analyses based on data from individual countries. We have demonstrated that with stratified pooling we can combine local mortality monitoring systems and enhance monitoring of mortality across Europe.
Protein kinases (PKs) of parasitic protozoa are being evaluated as drug targets. A large number of protein kinases within the protein kinome of Entamoeba histolytica strongly suggest that protein phosphorylation is a key component of pathogenesis regulation by this parasite. PI3 K and Src are kinases previously described in this parasite, but their role is poorly understood. Here, the effect of Src-1-inhibitor and PI3 K inhibitor (Wortmannin) on the virulence factors of E. histolytica was evaluated. Results show that both inhibitors affect the actin cytoskeleton and the amoebic movement. Also, the proteolytic activity is diminished by Wortmannin, but not by Src-inhibitor-1; however, the phagocytic capacity is diminished by Wortmannin and Src-1-inhibitor. Finally, we found that the virulence in vivo of E. histolytica is affected by Wortmannin but not by Src-1-inhibitor. This study opens the way for the design of anti-amoebic drugs based on kinase inhibition.
1-3 BaTiO3-PVDF hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by combining electrospinning, sol-gel and spin-coating techniques. First, one-dimensional structures of barium titanate (BaTiO3) were obtained by electrospinning. An alcoholic solution consisting of Ba2+ and Ti4+ions (1:1 molar ratio) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) was electrospun at 15 kV, with a tip-to-collector distance of 15 cm and a feed rate of 0.5 mL/h. Ceramic fibers were obtained after sintering the as-spun fibers at 900 °C for 2 hours. In a second step, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was incorporated to the oxide fibers by spin-coating a dimetilformamide solution, thus conforming 1-3 ceramic-polymeric hybrid nanocomposites on stainless steel substrates.
Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the as-spun fibers were smooth, long and continuous with an average diameter of 155 ± 40 nm, ranging from 60 to 240 nm, while sintered fibers presented a reduction in size, with an average diameter of 115 ± 16 nm, ranging from 96 to 120 nm. Sintered nanofibers were also long and continuous but with a rough surface. X-ray diffraction confirmed the perovskite-type structure of the BaTiO3. A structure refinement revealed a degree of tetragonality of 1.0046.
The polymer crystalline phases were identified by infrared spectroscopy on ATR mode. This study showed the presence of both β and γ polar phases, and absence of non-polar α phase, according to the characteristic bands for such crystalline phases.
The nanocomposites exhibited a ferroelectric behavior and electrical polarization according to their ceramic and polymeric components.