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Mules and other equine species have been used in warfare for thousands of years to transport goods and supplies. Mules are known for ‘braying’, which is disadvantageous in warfare operations. This article explores the fascinating development of surgical techniques to stop military mules from braying, with particular emphasis on the key role played by the otolaryngologist Arthur James Moffett in devoicing the mules of the second Chindit expedition of World War II.
The PubMed database (1900–2017) and Google search engine were used to identify articles related to devoicing mules in the medical and veterinary literature, along with information and images on the Chindit expedition.
This paper reviews the surgical techniques aimed at treating braying in mules, ranging from ventriculectomy and arytenoidectomy to Moffett's approach of vocal cordectomy.
Moffett's technique of vocal cordectomy provided a quick, reproducible and safe solution for devoicing mules. It proved to be advantageous on the battlefield and demonstrated his achievements outside the field of medicine.
In the present paper, we analyzed the effects of magnetic field on the three dimensional flow of a nanofluid having the suspension of ferrous nano-particles within the framework of a non-uniformly thicked sheet in a slip flow regime. The sheet of variable thickness is assumed to be stretched in horizontal and transverse directions. The effects of thermophoretic forces and Brownian motion have also been incorporated into the governing equations. The RK-Fehlberg-integration scheme with shooting technique is employed to resolve the altered governing non-linear differential equations. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented and discussed for two cases namely uniform thickness stretching sheet UTSS (n = 1) and variable thickness stretching sheet VTSS (n ≠ 1), and skin friction coefficient, reduced Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and analyzed through tables. The results reveal that heat and mass transfer processes over slendering sheet matches with those over a flat sheet in the presence of slip flow regime.
The control of convective heat transfer from a heated circular cylinder immersed in an electrically conducting fluid is achieved using an externally imposed magnetic field. A Higher Order Compact Scheme (HOCS) is used to solve the governing energy equation in cylindrical polar coordinates. The HOCS gives fourth order accurate results for the temperature field. The behavior of local Nusselt number, mean Nusselt number and temperature field due to variation in the aligned magnetic field is evaluated for the parameters 5≤Re≤40, 0≤N≤20 and 0.065≤Pr≤7. It is found that the convective heat transfer is suppressed by increasing the strength of the imposed magnetic field until a critical value of N, the interaction parameter, beyond which the heat transfer increases with further increase in N. The results are found to be in good agreement with recent experimental studies.
The solution of the pressure Poisson equation in spherical polar coordinates using a higher order compact (HOC) scheme effectively captures low pressure values in the wake region for viscous flow past a sphere. In the absence of an exact solution, the fourth-order of accuracy of the results is illustrated. Low pressure circular contours occur in the wake region when the Reynolds number Re = 161, which is a lower value than previously identified in the literature, and closed pressure contours appear in two regions when Re = 250.
A higher-order compact scheme on the nine point 2-D stencil is developed for the steady stream-function vorticity form of the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in spherical polar coordinates, which was used earlier only for the cartesian and cylindrical geometries. The steady, incompressible, viscous and axially symmetric flow past a sphere is used as a model problem. The non-linearity in the N-S equations is handled in a comprehensive manner avoiding complications in calculations. The scheme is combined with the multigrid method to enhance the convergence rate. The solutions are obtained over a non-uniform grid generated using the transformation r=e? while maintaining a uniform grid in the computational plane. The superiority of the higher order compact scheme is clearly illustrated in comparison with upwind scheme and defect correction technique at high Reynolds numbers by taking a large domain. This is a pioneering effort, because for the first time, the fourth order accurate solutions for the problem of viscous flow past a sphere are presented here. The drag coefficient and surface pressures are calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical results. It is observed that these values simulated over coarser grids using the present scheme are more accurate when compared to other conventional schemes. It has also been observed that the flow separation initially occurred at Re = 21.
We have studied the crystallization of the yttrium - iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, YIG) polycrystalline phase in thin films fabricated by means of pulsed laser deposition . Films were deposited on MgO substrates in vacuum, in argon, and in oxygen. A subsequent post-deposition heat treatment (annealing) was done at 800°C in air. We have shown that the crystallization of YIG was precluded by co-existent parasitic phases present in the as-deposited films. Specifically, the growth of the parasitic phase needs to be suppressed in order to get a single-phase polycrystalline YIG. Lowering the substrate temperature has been shown to be a simple and efficient way to suppress the growth of parasitic phase and to obtain good quality YIG films after thermal treatment. This procedure has been demonstrated to be successful even when the YIG films were grown in vacuum and their composition was significantly out of stoichiometry.
Si+ implant activation efficiencies above 90%, even at doses of 5×1015 cm−2, have been achieved in GaN by RTP at 1400–1500°C for 10 secs. The annealing system utilizes with MoSi2 heating elements capable of operation up to 1900 °C, producing high heating and cooling rates (up to 100 °C · s−1). Unencapsulated GaN show severe surface pitting at 1300 °C, and complete loss of the film by evaporation at 1400 °C. Dissociation of nitrogen from the surface is found to occur with an approximate activation energy of 3.8 eV for GaN (compared to 4.4 eV for AIN and 3.4 eV for InN). Encapsulation with either rf-magnetron reactively sputtered or MOMBE-grown AIN thin films provide protection against GaN surface degradation up to 1400 °C, where peak electron concentrations of ∼5×1020 cm-3 can be achieved in Si-implanted GaN. SIMS profiling showed little measurable redistribution of Si, suggesting Dsi ≤ 10-13 cm2 · s−1 at 1400 °C. The implant activation efficiency decreases at higher temperatures, which may result from SiGa to SiN site switching and resultant self-compensation.
We introduce for the first time a novel rapid thermal processing (RTP) unit called ZapperTM, which has recently been developed by MHI Inc. and the University of Florida for high temperature thermal processing of semiconductors. This ZapperTM unit is capable of reaching much higher temperatures (>1500 °C) than conventional tungsten-halogen lamp RTP equipment and achieving high ramp-up and ramp-down rates. We have conducted implant activation annealing studies of Si+-implanted GaN thin films (with and without an AIN encapsulation layer) using the ZapperTM unit at temperatures up to 1500 °C. The electrical property measurements of such annealed samples have led to the conclusion that high annealing temperatures and AIN encapsulation are needed for the optimum activation efficiency of Si+ implants in GaN. It has clearly been demonstrated that the ZapperTM unit has tremendous potential for RTP annealing of semiconductor materials, especially for wide bandgap compound semiconductors that require very high processing temperatures.
A mathematical model of micropyretic synthesis, including the consideration of pressure rise (due to gas evolution) in a porous compact, is developed for a multistep reaction. D'Arcy's law of gas flow, continuity equation, and gas law are combined to obtain a relationship between the pressure and temperature of gas. This equation for the gas pressure is solved along with the energy equations of gas and solid phase. The numerical analysis shows that the magnitude of pressure increase depends on the initial gas pressure, temperature, and permeability. When gas evolution is considered, the pressure increase depends on the variables that determine the kinetics of the gas evolution reaction, such as the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The pressure increase is maximum when the gas evolution takes place in the combustion reaction zone. The gas evolution is noted not to influence the combustion wave propagation.
Insecticides belonging to the four major groups were bioassayed against Helicoverpa armigera Hubner collected from cotton in the Guntur region of Andhra Pradesh, India, during the 1989/90, 1990/91 and 1991/92 cropping seasons. High levels of resistance to all groups of insecticides were recorded. Tolerance to quinalphos had increased drastically in the 1991/92 season, while resistance to endosulfan, monocrotophos and carbaryl had increased moderately. The populations were also highly resistant to cypermethrin and deltamethrin and mildly resistant to fenvalerate. The resistance levels varied from season to season, thus reflecting the selection pressure created through insecticides.
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