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The following position statement from the Union of the European Phoniatricians, updated on 25th May 2020 (superseding the previous statement issued on 21st April 2020), contains a series of recommendations for phoniatricians and ENT surgeons who provide and/or run voice, swallowing, speech and language, or paediatric audiology services.
This material specifically aims to inform clinical practices in countries where clinics and operating theatres are reopening for elective work. It endeavours to present a current European view in relation to common procedures, many of which fall under the aegis of aerosol generating procedures.
As evidence continues to build, some of the recommended practices will undoubtedly evolve, but it is hoped that the updated position statement will offer clinicians precepts on safe clinical practice.
Dyfunctions of prefrontal neuronal circuits contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Previous studies showed increased functional MRI and EEG connectivity in patients with depression. In this study we investigated a large sample of patients with major depression (n=228) and healthy subjects (n=215).
Spectrotemporal dynamics during resting state with closed eyes were analyzed in sensor and source space to examine functional EEG connectivity (fcEEG) alterations between groups. Quantitative measures of delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma power, hemispheric asymmetry, coherence, phase and current source density (CSD, eLORETA) analyses were calculated from artifact-free EEG recordings.
EEG theta power was increased in all brain regions in the group of patients with a focus in frontal regions and increased frontal theta and alpha power. Excessive coherence differences were detected in the delta, theta and alpha-bands in frontal, frontal-temporal and frontal-parietal regions. There were changes in phase differences in the delta, theta, alpha-bands between patients and healthy subjects. Differences in CSD were found for the delta, theta, alpha-band in the (rostral and subgenual) anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with increased CSD in the patients.
The main finding of the present study was an increase in cortical slow-wave activity in sensor and source space in patients with depression revealing marked differences in prefrontal cortical networks. Functional delta, theta and alpha connectivity (coherence and phase) were altered with a predominance in the left hemisphere. Dysfunctions of the ACC, together with alterations in fcEEG may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depression.
To identify deep neck infection factors related to life-threatening complications.
This retrospective multi-institutional study comprised 586 patients treated for deep neck infections between 2002 and 2012. The statistical significance of variables associated with life-threatening complications of deep neck infections was assessed.
During treatment, life-threatening complications occurred in 60 out of 586 cases. On univariate analysis, life-threatening complications were linked to: dyspnoea, neck movement disturbance and dysphonia (all p < 0.001); and parapharyngeal, anterior visceral or pretracheal deep neck involvement (all p < 0.002). Aetiology was significantly linked to tonsils (p < 0.001). Regarding infection type, fasciitis was a significant factor (p < 0.001). Candida albicans was a significant bacterial culture (p < 0.001). A multivariate step-wise model disclosed fewer significant variables: retropharyngeal space (p = 0.005) and major blood vessels area (p = 0.006) involvement, and bacterial culture C albicans (p < 0.001).
It can be predicted that patients with deep neck infections, with neck movement disturbances, dysphonia, dyspnoea and swelling of the external neck, accompanied by severe pain, and inflammatory changes in the retropharyngeal space and large vessel areas, with culture-confirmed infection of C albicans, are likely to develop life-threatening complications.
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