To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), particularly carbapenemase-producing (CP) CRE, pose a major public health threat. In 2016, the phenotypic definition of CRE expanded to include ertapenem resistance to improve sensitivity for detecting CP-CRE. We compared characteristics of CRE resistant to ertapenem only (CRE-EO) to CRE resistant to ≥1 other carbapenem (CRE-O). Methods: The Georgia Emerging Infections Program performs active, population-based CRE surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta. CRE cases were defined as any Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. variicola, Enterobacter cloacae complex, or Enterobacter aerogenes resistant to ≥1 carbapenem by the clinical laboratory and isolated from urine or a sterile site between 2016 and 2018. Data were extracted from retrospective chart review and 90-day mortality from Georgia vital statistics for 2016–2017. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for carbapenemase genes was performed on a convenience sample of isolates by the CDC or Georgia Public Health Laboratory. We compared characteristics of CRE-EO cases to CRE-O cases using χ2 tests or t tests. Results: Among 927 CRE isolates, 553 (60%) were CRE-EO. CRE-EO were less frequently isolated from blood (5% vs 12%; P < .01) and less commonly K. pneumoniae (21% vs 58%; P < .01) than CRE-O. CRE-EO cases were more often women (65% vs 50%; P < .01), had a lower Charlson comorbidity index (mean ± SD, 2.4±2.3 vs 3.0±2.6; P < .01), and were less commonly at a long-term care facility (24% vs 31%) or hospital (15% vs 21%; P < .01) in the 4 days prior to the CRE culture. CRE-EO were more susceptible to all antibiotics tested at the clinical laboratory (P < .01) except for tigecycline (P = 1.0) (Table 1). Of the 300 (32%) isolates tested for carbapenemase genes, 98 (33%) were positive (7% CRE-EO vs 62% CRE-O; P < .01). Of the CP isolates, we identified blaKPC in 93 cases (95%), blaNDM in 3 cases (3%), blaOXA-48-like in 2 cases (2%). CRE-EO cases had lower 90-day mortality (13% vs 21%; P < .01). Conclusions: CRE-EO are epidemiologically distinct from CRE-O and are less likely to harbor carbapenemase genes. CRE-EO may require less intensive infection prevention interventions and have more therapeutic options.
Background: Automated testing instruments (ATIs) are commonly used by clinical microbiology laboratories to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), whereas public health laboratories may use established reference methods such as broth microdilution (BMD). We investigated discrepancies in carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) among Enterobacteriaceae tested by clinical laboratory ATIs and by reference BMD at the CDC. Methods: During 2016–2018, we conducted laboratory- and population-based surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) through the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites (10 sites by 2018). We defined an incident case as the first isolation of Enterobacter spp (E. cloacae complex or E. aerogenes), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, or K. variicola resistant to doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, or meropenem from normally sterile sites or urine identified from a resident of the EIP catchment area in a 30-day period. Cases had isolates that were determined to be carbapenem-resistant by clinical laboratory ATI MICs (MicroScan, BD Phoenix, or VITEK 2) or by other methods, using current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. A convenience sample of these isolates was tested by reference BMD at the CDC according to CLSI guidelines. Results: Overall, 1,787 isolates from 112 clinical laboratories were tested by BMD at the CDC. Of these, clinical laboratory ATI MIC results were available for 1,638 (91.7%); 855 (52.2%) from 71 clinical laboratories did not confirm as CRE at the CDC. Nonconfirming isolates were tested on either a MicroScan (235 of 462; 50.9%), BD Phoenix (249 of 411; 60.6%), or VITEK 2 (371 of 765; 48.5%). Lack of confirmation was most common among E. coli (62.2% of E. coli isolates tested) and Enterobacter spp (61.4% of Enterobacter isolates tested) (Fig. 1A), and among isolates testing resistant to ertapenem by the clinical laboratory ATI (52.1%, Fig. 1B). Of the 1,388 isolates resistant to ertapenem in the clinical laboratory, 1,006 (72.5%) were resistant only to ertapenem. Of the 855 nonconfirming isolates, 638 (74.6%) were resistant only to ertapenem based on clinical laboratory ATI MICs. Conclusions: Nonconfirming isolates were widespread across laboratories and ATIs. Lack of confirmation was most common among E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Among nonconfirming isolates, most were resistant only to ertapenem. These findings may suggest that ATIs overcall resistance to ertapenem or that isolate transport and storage conditions affect ertapenem resistance. Further investigation into this lack of confirmation is needed, and CRE case identification in public health surveillance may need to account for this phenomenon.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a major public health problem. Ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) is a treatment option for CRE approved in 2015; however, it does not have activity against isolates with metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Emerging resistance to CZA is a cause for concern. Our objective was to describe the microbiologic and epidemiologic characteristics of CZA-resistant (CZA-R) CRE. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, 9 states participated in laboratory- and population-based surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates from a normally sterile site or urine. A convenience sample of isolates from this surveillance were sent to the CDC for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) using reference broth microdilution (BMD) including an MBL screen, species confirmation with MALDI-TOF, and real-time PCR to detect blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaOXA-48–like genes. Additional AST by BMD was performed on CZA-R isolates using meropenem-vaborbactam (MEV), imipenem-relebactam (IMR), plazomicin (PLZ), and eravacycline (ERV). Epidemiologic data were obtained from a medical record review. Community-associated cases were defined as having no healthcare exposures in the year prior to culture, no devices in place 2 days prior to culture, and culture collected before calendar day 3 after hospital admission. Data were analyzed in 3 groups: CRE that were CZA-susceptible (CZA-S), CZA-R that were due to blaNDM, and CZA-R without blaNDM. Results: Among 606 confirmed CRE tested with CZA, 33 (5.4%) were CZA-R. Of the CZA-R isolates, 16 (48.5%) harbored a blaNDM gene, of which 2 coharbored blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like genes; 9 (27.3%) harbored only a blaKPC gene. Of the 17 CZA-R isolates without blaNDM, all were MBL screen negative. CZA-R due to blaNDM were more frequently community-associated (43.8%) than CZA-S or CZA-R without blaNDM (11.0% and 5.9%, respectively); a higher percentage of CZA-R cases due to blaNDM also had recent international travel (25%) compared to the other groups (1.8% and 5.9%, respectively). CZA-R without blaNDM were more susceptible to MEV (76%), IMR (71%), PLZ (88%), and ERV (65%) compared to CZA-R due to blaNDM (19%, 6%, 56%, and 44%, respectively). Conclusions: The emergence of CZA-R isolates without blaNDM are concerning; however, these isolates are more susceptible to newer antimicrobials than those with blaNDM. In addition to high rates of resistance to newer antimicrobials, isolates with blaNDM are more frequently community-associated than other CRE. This underscores the need for more aggressive measures to stop the spread of CRE.
Background: The capacity to monitor the emergence of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) is critical in limiting transmission. CPO-colonized patients can be identified by screening rectal specimens for carbapenemase genes and the Cepheid GeneXpert Carba-R (XCR), the only FDA-approved test, is limited to 5 carbapenemase genes and cannot identify the bacterial species. Objective: We describe the development and validation of culture-based methods for the detection of CPO in rectal cultures (RCs) and nonrectal cultures (NRCs) of tracheal aspirate and axilla-groin swabs. Methods: Colonization screening was performed at 3 US healthcare facilities; specimens of RC swabs and NRC ESwabs were collected. Each specimen was inoculated to a MacConkey broth enrichment tube for overnight incubation then were subcultured to MacConkey agar with meropenem and ertapenem 10 µg disks (BEMA) and CHROMagar KPC (KCHR) or CHROMagar Acinetobacter (ACHR). All media were evaluated for the presence of carbapenem-resistant organisms; suspect colonies were screened by real-time PCR for the most common carbapenemase genes. MALDI-TOF was performed for species identification. BEMA, a previously validated method, was the comparator for 52 RCs; clinical culture (CC) served as the comparator method for 66 NRCs. Select CPO-positive and -negative specimens underwent reproducibility testing. Results: Among 56 patients undergoing colonization screening, 12 (21%) carried a CPO. Only 1 patient had CPO solely from RC. Also, 6 patients had both CPO-positive RC and NRC, and 5 patients only had a CPO-positive NRC. Of the latter, 4 had a CPO-positive tracheal specimen, and 1 had a positive culture from both tracheal and axilla-groin specimens. Sensitivity of BEMA (70%) for NRC was lower than for KCHR (96%) and ACHR (88 %) for all specimens. All methods showed a specificity of 100% and reproducibility of 92%. The detected CPO included OXA-23–positive Acinetobacter baumannii, NDM-positive Escherichia coli, KPC-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 4 genera of KPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusions:The addition of nonrectal specimens and use of selective media contributed to increased sensitivity and enhanced identification of CPO-colonized patients. Positive cultures were equally distributed among the 3 specimen types. The addition of the nonrectal specimens resulted in the identification of more colonized patients. The culture-based method was successful in detecting an array of different CPOs and target genes, including genes not detected by the Carba-R assay (eg, blaOXA-23-like). Enhanced isolation and characterization of CPOs will be key in aiding epidemiologic investigations and strengthening targeted guidance for containment strategies.
Disclosures: We discuss the drug combination aztreonam-avibactam and acknowledge that this drug combination is not currently FDA approved.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) represent a significant antibiotic resistance threat, in part because carbapenemase genes can spread on mobile genetic elements. Here, we describe the molecular epidemiology and outcomes of patients with CRE bacteriuria from the same city in a nonoutbreak setting. Methods: The Georgia Emerging Infections Program performs active, population-based CRE surveillance in Atlanta. We studied a cohort of patients with CRE (resistant to all tested third-generation cephalosporins and ≥1 carbapenem, excluding ertapenem) first identified in urine, and not in a prior or simultaneous sterile site, between 2012 and 2015. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on a convenience sample. We obtained epidemiologic and outcome data through chart review and Georgia Vital Statistics records (90-day mortality). Using WGS, we created a core-genome alignment-based phylogenetic tree of the Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and calculated the SNP difference between each sample. Using SAS version 9.4 software, we performed the Fisher exact test and univariable odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI to compare patient isolates with and without a carbapenemase gene. Results: Among 81 patients included, the median age was 68 (IQR, 57–74) years, and most were female (58%), black (60%), and resided in a long-term care facility 4 days prior to culture isolation (53%). Organisms isolated were K. pneumoniae (84%), Escherichia coli (7%), Enterobacter cloacae (7%), and Klebsiella oxytoca (1%). WGS identified at least 1 β-lactamase gene in 91% of the isolates; 85% contained a carbapenemase gene, the most frequent of which was blaKPC-3 (94%). Patients with CRE containing a carbapenemase gene were more likely to be black (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.0–13.8) and to have K. pneumoniae (OR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.2–35.0). Using a core-genome alignment of 3,708 genes (~63% of the complete genome), we identified a median of 67 (IQR, 23–3,881) SNP differences between each K. pneumoniae isolate. A phylogenetic tree identified clustering around carbapenemase gene and multilocus sequence type (84% were ST 258) but not based on referring laboratory or county of residence (Fig. 1). Although 7% of patients developed an invasive CRE infection within 1 year and 21% died within 90 days, having a carbapenemase gene was not associated with these outcomes. Conclusions: Molecular sequencing of a convenience sample of CRE bacteriuria support K. pneumoniae ST258 harboring blaKPC-3 being distributed throughout the Atlanta area, across the healthcare continuum. Overall mortality was high in this population, but the presence of carbapenemase genes was not associated with worse outcomes.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.