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Chest pain is the second most common reason for referral to paediatric cardiologists after benign heart murmurs. Aetiology frequently depends on non-cardiac reasons. In addition, individuals may experience non-cardiac chest pain which is idiopathic or of unknown origin. The aim of this study is to examine psychological symptoms in children and adolescents with medically unexplained chest pain.
A total of 76 patients (ages 8–18 years) were included in the study, who were referred to the paediatric cardiology department with the complaint of chest pain but did not have any detected cardiac aetiology or any other organic causes of chest pain. The control group was composed of 51 healthy volunteers. Self-evaluation scales were given to both groups which included Beck Anxiety Inventory and Children’s Depression Inventory. Also parents of both groups completed the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale for assessment of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Anxiety scores of the non-cardiac chest pain group were significantly higher compared to controls. No significant differences were found between patients and controls in terms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression scores. In patient group, patterns were similar for boys and girls and for children and adolescents; except girls scored significantly higher than boys in children’s depression inventory.
In children and adolescents, non-cardiac chest pain is associated with increased levels of anxiety. These results show the importance of psychiatric evaluation in non-cardiac chest pain patients. Larger controlled studies are needed to determine the prevalence and impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression in children and adolescents with non-cardiac chest pain.
Anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents carry the well-recognised risk of cardiac toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effect of anthracycline chemotherapy on the biventricular function in childhood cancer survivors using tissue Doppler imaging and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.
Patients and Methods:
The study included 45 survivors of childhood cancers and 50 healthy age-matched control patients. Cardiac function was prospectively studied with conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging, and speckle tracking echocardiography after completion of treatment. The same analysis was performed on matched controls.
There was no difference in age, gender, height, and weight between the study and control groups. The mean anthracycline dose was 240 ± 106 mg/m2 and the mean remission duration was 8.2 ± 5 years (1–20 years) in the study group. Conventional echocardiography showed similar ejection fraction, shortening fraction, and left ventricle end-diastolic diameter in both groups. Mitral lateral and septal tissue Doppler imaging showed normal but according to control group relatively sub-normal systolic and diastolic function in patient group. The global longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rates were significantly lower in the patient group compared to control group. Correlation analysis revealed a negative and significant correlation between total anthracycline dose and global longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rates.
Sub-clinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction may not be detected by conventional echocardiographic methods which are frequently used in daily practice. Sub-clinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction may be detected more sensitively by echocardiographic method such as speckle tracking echocardiography in childhood cancer survivors.
It is suggested that folic acid and/or multivitamins, taken periconceptionally, have a role in the prevention of many congenital anomalies. The aim of this study was to determine the serum micronutrient levels in mother–infant pairs with CHD compared with those with healthy newborns and their mothers.
Serum levels of folic acid, homocysteine, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 were measured from 108 newborns with CHD (study group) and 103 healthy newborns (control group). The mothers’ micronutrient levels were also measured simultaneously.
When compared with healthy newborns, for both maternal and neonatal data, homocysteine and zinc levels were higher and vitamin D levels were lower in the study group. In multivariate analysis, only maternal high zinc levels were associated with CHD in the newborns (p=0.02, OR: 0.9, 95% CI 0.8–0.9). The results did not change when analysed for truncal anomalies including truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, and d-transposition of great arteries. There were positive correlations between maternal and neonatal levels of micronutrients, except vitamin B12.
We thought that high homocysteine and zinc levels and low vitamin D levels in mother–infant pairs might have a role in the aetiopathogenesis of CHD. Large-scale, prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of micronutrients in CHDs.
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