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United States dentists prescribe 10% of all outpatient antibiotics. Assessing appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing has been challenging due to a lack of guidelines for oral infections. In 2019, the American Dental Association (ADA) published clinical practice guidelines (CPG) on the management of acute oral infections. Our objective was to describe baseline national antibiotic prescribing for acute oral infections prior to the release of the ADA CPG and to identify patient-level variables associated with an antibiotic prescription.
We performed an analysis of national VA data from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017. We identified cases of acute oral infections using International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes. Antibiotics prescribed by a dentist within ±7 days of a visit were included. Multivariable logistic regression identified patient-level variables associated with an antibiotic prescription.
Of the 470,039 VA dental visits with oral infections coded, 12% of patient visits with irreversible pulpitis, 17% with apical periodontitis, and 28% with acute apical abscess received antibiotics. Although the median days’ supply was 7, prolonged use of antibiotics was frequent (≥8 days, 42%–49%). Patients with high-risk cardiac conditions, prosthetic joints, and endodontic, implant, and oral and maxillofacial surgery dental procedures were more likely to receive antibiotics.
Most treatments of irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis cases were concordant with new ADA guidelines. However, in cases where antibiotics were prescribed, prolonged antibiotic courses >7 days were frequent. These findings demonstrate opportunities for the new ADA guidelines to standardize and improve dental prescribing practices.
To develop a regional antibiogram within the Chicagoland metropolitan area and to compare regional susceptibilities against individual hospitals within the area and national surveillance data.
Multicenter retrospective analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility data from 2017 and comparison to local institutions and national surveillance data.
Setting and participants:
The analysis included 51 hospitals from the Chicago–Naperville–Elgin Metropolitan Statistical Area within the state of Illinois. Overall, 18 individual collaborator hospitals provided antibiograms for analysis, and data from 33 hospitals were provided in aggregate by the Becton Dickinson Insights Research Database.
All available antibiogram data from calendar year 2017 were combined to generate the regional antibiogram. The final Chicagoland antibiogram was then compared internally to collaborators and externally to national surveillance data to assess its applicability and utility.
In total, 167,394 gram-positive, gram-negative, fungal, and mycobacterial isolates were collated to create a composite regional antibiogram. The regional data represented the local institutions well, with 96% of the collaborating institutions falling within ±2 standard deviations of the regional mean. The regional antibiogram was able to include 4–5-fold more gram-positive and -negative species with ≥30 isolates than the median reported by local institutions. Against national surveillance data, 18.6% of assessed pathogen–antibiotic combinations crossed prespecified clinical thresholds for disparity in susceptibility rates, with notable trends for resistant gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
Developing an accurate, reliable regional antibiogram is feasible, even in one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States. The biogram is useful in assessing susceptibilities to less commonly encountered organisms and providing clinicians a more accurate representation of local antimicrobial resistance rates compared to national surveillance databases.
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.
A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.
A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4–6.9], P=.006 and 50–64 years, 2.5 [1.3–4.9], P=.007; reference age 18–49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1–3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9–37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2–1.4], P<.001).
Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013–2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1251–1260