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Meta-granites of the South Delhi Fold Belt, northwestern India, contain spectacular reaction textures formed during the metamorphic replacement of primary minerals. Textural relationships imply that amphibole was replaced sequentially in two stages. Epidote + titanite + quartz symplectite formed syn-tectonically on amphibole grain boundaries/fractures, followed by post-deformational growth of euhedral garnet overprinting amphibole grains. Besides occurring as symplectite grown during deformation, titanite in this rock also developed as a post-tectonic corona around magnetite. Parent magnetite contains exsolutions of ilmenite and/or ultrafine lamellae of Ti-rich oxide (Ti-oxd). Textures involving coronal titanite suggest their formation through a magnetite + ilmenite(/Ti-oxd) + plagioclase → titanite reaction. Compositional attributes and the calculation of the gain versus loss of components during the reaction suggest that the Mn2+ for garnet (XSpss = 0.23–0.29) that grew replacing amphibole was supplied by ilmenite (Mn2+ is 0.118–0.128 apfu) as it disintegrated to form coronal titanite. The redistribution of components between the metamorphic reaction sites connects the texturally unrelated domains and suggests that these zones were in chemical equilibrium during metamorphism. We estimated the P–T conditions of metamorphism for these post-tectonic assemblages as ∼650–700 °C from pseudosection modelling and conventional thermometry. Zircon data from this study suggest that the granitic rock crystallized at 988.8 ± 8.8 Ma. We propose that the metamorphic phases replaced the primary minerals during the mid Neoproterozoic tectonic activity reported from this terrane. The syn-tectonic symplectitic assemblage formed as the temperature increased during prograde metamorphism, and the post-tectonic minerals developed at peak conditions following the cessation of deformation.
Partial equilibrium textures such as corona provide information on changing pressure–temperature (P-T) conditions experienced by a rock during its geological evolution. Coronae layers may form in single or multiple stages; understanding the genesis of each layer is necessary to correctly extract information regarding the physicochemical conditions experienced by the rock. Mafic rocks from SE Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex, India, show the presence of multi-layered coronae at olivine–plagioclase contact with the mineral sequence: olivine | orthopyroxene | amphibole + spinel | plagioclase. Textural studies indicate that the coronae formed during metamorphism in a single stage due to a reaction between olivine and plagioclase. Reaction modelling shows that the corona formation occurred in an open system and experienced a minor volume loss. Pseudosection modelling and thermobarometry suggest that the P-T conditions related to corona formation are 860 ± 50°C and 7 ± 0.5 kbar. A μMgO-μCaO diagram shows that the layers in coronae formed in response to chemical potential gradients between the reactant minerals. A combination of field observations and the P-T conditions of coronae formation suggest a fluid-driven metamorphism. Correlation with extant geological information indicates that the corona-forming event is possibly related to the accretion of India and Antarctica during the assembly of Rodinia.
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