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We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
We present cosmological hydrodynamical simulations including atomic and molecular non-equilibrium chemistry, multi-frequency radiative transfer (0.7–100 eV sampled over 150 frequency bins) and stellar population evolution to investigate the host candidates of the seeds of supermassive black holes coming from direct collapse of gas in primordial haloes direct-collapse black holes, DCBHs. We consistently address the role played by atomic and molecular cooling, stellar radiation and metal spreading of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, etc. from primordial sources, as well as their implications for nearby quiescent proto-galaxies under different assumptions for early source emissivity, initial mass function, and metal yields. We find that putative DCBH (direct-collapse black holes) host candidates need powerful primordial stellar generations, since common solar-like stars and hot OB-type stars are neither able to determine the conditions for direct collapse nor capable of building up a dissociating Lyman–Werner background radiation field. Thermal and molecular features of the identified DCBH host candidates in the scenario with very massive primordial stars seem favourable, with illuminating Lyman–Werner intensities featuring values of 1 – 50J21. Nevertheless, additional nonlinear processes, such as merger events, substructure formation, rotational motions, and photo-evaporation, should inhibit pure direct-collapse black hole formation in two-third of the cases. Local turbulence may delay gas direct collapse almost irrespectively from other environmental conditions. The impact of large Lyman–Werner fluxes at distances smaller than ~5 kpc is severely limited by metal pollution.
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