To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The aim of this study was to assess barriers and facilitators in the pathways toward specialist care for eating disorders (EDs).
Eleven ED services located in seven European countries recruited patients with an ED. Clinicians administered an adapted version of the World Health Organization “Encounter Form,” a standardized tool to assess the pathways to care. The unadjusted overall time needed to access the ED unit was described using the Kaplan–Meier curve.
Four-hundred-nine patients were recruited. The median time between the onset of the current ED episode and the access to a specialized ED care was 2 years. Most of the participants did not directly access the specialist ED unit: primary “points of access” to care were mental health professionals and general practitioners. The involvement of different health professionals in the pathway, seeking help for general psychiatric symptoms, and lack of support from family members were associated with delayed access to ED units.
Educational programs aiming to promote early diagnosis and treatment for EDs should pay particular attention to general practitioners, in addition to mental health professionals, and family members to increase awareness of these illnesses and of their treatment initiation process.
To gain a better understanding about which aspects of the treatment work for obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), the investigation of possible change factors is essential. Psychological flexibility (PsyF) has been of interest in research on successful OCD therapy for some time. Exposure interventions and cognitive strategies in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for OCD may enhance PsyF. To date, however, no process studies have been published that clarify the role of PsyF as a possible change factor for the reduction of OCD symptoms.
This study investigates whether PsyF works as a mediator in successful CBT treatment of OCD.
The study recruited 112 adults diagnosed with OCD in a multi-modal in-patient treatment with specific CBT including exposure and response prevention (ERP). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to measure OCD symptoms and three self-constructed items to assess PsyF. PsyF was conceptualised as the capability of patients to accept stressful feelings and thoughts. Data were collected weekly. For statistical analysis at the process level, longitudinal multi-level models (MLMs) with random intercepts and linear growth curves were estimated to test for mediation of PsyF on Y-BOCS.
OCD symptoms decreased significantly and PsyF increased in patients throughout the course of therapy. MLM revealed that higher average values in PsyF were associated with lower Y-BOCS sum values, but only values between subjects significantly predicted the degree of obsessions and compulsions.
Although research shows that PsyF is enhanced by CBT and also shows a connection with Y-BOCS values, its role as a mediator could not be confirmed.
While exposure and response prevention (ERP) is the most effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), less is known about the specific mechanisms underlying symptom change after ERP.
We tested the hypothesis that the frequency of self- and therapist-guided ERP related to the extent of symptom reduction and that this link is mediated by increased self-efficacy.
In a sample of 377 in-patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD receiving in-patient CBT, we assessed symptoms (YBOCS-SR) and self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), before and after treatment, as well as the frequency of therapist- and self-guided ERP sessions.
Patients with more therapist-guided ERP sessions during treatment showed more symptom reduction and the association of self-guided ERP on outcome was mediated by enhanced self-efficacy.
These findings highlight the importance of both therapist- and self-guided ERP sessions and suggest that therapists should conduct a sufficient number of ERP sessions to optimise treatment.
A computerized version of the object alternation test (OAT) was employed in unmedicated obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and matched healthy controls. OCD patients performed normally on the OAT but scored below controls on a task assessing visuo-spatial working memory. The results challenge the concept of the OAT as a sensitive instrument for orbitofrontal dysfunction in OCD.
Anorexia nervosa is a serious disorder, which often takes a chronic course. Early treatment leads to a significantly better prognosis and prevents chronicity. However, existing evidence on facilitators and barriers in anorexia nervosa treatment initiation is scarce.
Against this background, the FABIANA study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03713541) aims to (a) identify potentially modifiable facilitators and barriers from the perspectives of adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa, carers and physicians, (b) develop and test an instrument for the combined assessment of multiple key facilitators and barriers, and (c) quantify the effect of potentially modifiable versus non-modifiable key facilitators and barriers on the duration of untreated illness (DUI) in patients with anorexia nervosa.
FABIANA is an observational, mixed-method-study divided into three consecutive substudies each corresponding to one of the study aims. All three substudies will include female patients with anorexia nervosa aged 14 years and older at the beginning of their first psychotherapeutic anorexia nervosa treatment. The qualitative substudy I and the quantitative substudy III will additionally include carers and involved physicians. The recruitment will take place at 20 cooperating study centres throughout Germany, which provide in-patient or out-patient anorexia nervosa specialist care. The DUI will be calculated based on the month of illness onset as determined in validated interviews on lifetime anorexia nervosa symptoms and the therapist-reported date of treatment initiation.
Strengths and limitations of the retrospective assessment of the DUI will be discussed. The findings of the FABIANA study will contribute to the development of evidence-based early-intervention approaches and the prevention of a chronic course of illness.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising putative modality for the treatment of refractory psychiatric disorders such as major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several targets have been posited; however, a clear consensus on differential efficacy and possible modes of action remain unclear. DBS to the supero-lateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) has recently been introduced for major depression (MD). Due to our experience with slMFB stimulation for MD, and because OCD might be related to similar dysfunctions of the reward system, treatment with slMFB DBS seams meaningful. Here we describe our first 2 cases together with a hypothetical mode of action.
We describe diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tractographically (FT)-assisted implantation of the bilateral DBS systems in 2 male patients. In a selected literature overview, we discuss the possible mode of action. Both patients were successfully implanted and stimulated. The follow-up time was 12 months. One patient showed a significant response (Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale [YBOCS] reduction by 35%); the other patient reached remission criteria 3 months after surgery (YBOCS<14) and showed mild OCD just above the remission criterion at 12 months follow-up.
While the hypermetabolism theory for OCD involves the cortico–striato–thalamo–cortical (CSTC) network, we think that there is clinical evidence that the reward system plays a crucial role. Our findings suggest an important role of this network in mechanisms of disease development and recovery. In this uncontrolled case series, continuous bilateral DBS to the slMFB led to clinically significant improvements of ratings of OCD severity. Ongoing research focuses on the role of the reward system in OCD, and its yet-underestimated role in this underlying neurobiology of the disease.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.