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Sense of coherence (SOC) is a resource for health and quality of life (QoL) in adults. Aim of this investigation was to evaluate the association of SOC and QoL in adolescents with congenital heart defects (CHD).
Observational study among 770 adolescents aged 14 – 17 years from a national CHD register. SOC was measured at baseline with the SOC-L9 questionnaire. At baseline and at 12-months follow-up, QoL was measured with the KINDL-R questionnaire, evaluating overall well-being and six subscales. The association of SOC with QoL was evaluated in multi-level linear models separately for overall well-being and KINDL-R subscales. Initial models comprised SOC as only fixed effect while the final models were adjusted for age, gender, medical and socioeconomic status and behavioral factors.
Overall well-being, self-esteem and school-related well-being was significantly higher at follow-up compared with baseline. SOC at baseline (median 50 [range: 16 – 63] points) was positively associated with overall well-being and all KINDL-R subscales. There were significant negative interactions between SOC at baseline and time to follow-up for overall well-being and all KINDL-R subscales except psychological well-being. But even in fully adjusted models associations of SOC at baseline with overall well-being and all KINDL-R subscales at follow-up remained significant.
SOC is an independent predictor of QoL in adolescents with CHD. Except for psychological well-being, this effect attenuates over one year but remains positive inoverall QoL and sub-dimensions. Further studies should evaluate whether interventions aimed to increase SOC in children with CHD improve QoL.
Aim of the present study was to assess health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) by self and proxy-parent assessment in children and adolescents who survived a first stroke episode.
We investigated HR-QoL in 133 pediatric stroke survivors (71 preschool children (G1) aged 4 to < 8 years and 62 school children/adolescents (G2) aged 8 to 21 years) and in 169 healthy controls aged 4 – 16 years. HR-QoL was assessed with the generic KINDL-R questionnaire exploring overall well-being and 6 sub-dimensions (physical well-being, psychological well-being, self-esteem, family-related well-being, friend-related well-being, and school-related well-being. Proxy-parent reports explored overall well-being and sub-dimensions. Results were compared within groups between cases and controls. In pediatric stroke survivors the neurological long-term outcome was measured with the standardized Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure.
65% of stroke survivors exhibited at least one motor-sensor/cognitive disability. G1 and G2 stroke survivors reported lower overall well-being compared with healthy controls. In G2 stroke survivors, friend-related well-being was significantly reduced compared with healthy controls, 85.0 vs. 73.0 points, p < 0.001. Parents/proxys of both G1 and G2 stroke survivors rated the overall well-being and all sub-dimensions (except family-related and school-related well-being and in G1 stroke survivors physical functioning) lower compared with parent/proxys of healthy children/adolescents.
Our results suggest that the KINDL-R questionnaire is a useful tool in the assessment of HR-QoL in pediatric stroke survivors. Compared with healthy controls, all pediatric/adolescent stroke survivors are strongly affected regarding their overall well-being and older children/adolescents regarding their well-being with peers.
Experimental investigations of heavy-ion-generated shock waves in
solid, multilayered targets were performed by applying a Schlieren and
a laser-deflection technique. Shock velocity and the corresponding
pressures, temporal and spatial density profiles inside the material
compressed by multiple shock waves, and details of the shock dynamics
were determined. Important for equation-of-state and phase transition
studies, such experiments extend their relevance to inertial
confinement fusion and astrophysical fundamental research.
The article presents the results of the experimental research
on precision measurement of total stopping range and energy
deposition function of intermediate and heavy ion beams in cold
solid matter. The “thick target” method proves to
be appropriate for this purpose. Two types of detectors were
developed which provide an error of the total stopping range
measurement of less than 3% and of the beam energy deposition
function of about 7%. The experiments with 58Ni+26,
197Au+65, and 238U+72 ion
beams in the energy range 100–300 MeV/u were performed on
SIS-18 (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt)
in 1999–2001. The measured data on the total stopping
ranges for the above ion species in bulk and foiled Al and Cu
targets are presented. The investigation showed that there is
a noticeable discrepancy between the measured stopping ranges
and the theoretically predicted ones. Also, it was shown that
realistic ion energy deposition depends on the type of target
(bulk or foiled). Further investigation is necessary to clarify
At the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI, Darmstadt)
intense beams of energetic heavy ions have been used to generate
high-energy-density (HED) state in matter by impact on solid
targets. Recently, we have developed a new method by which we
use the same heavy ion beam that heats the target to provide
information about the physical state of the interior of the
target (Varentsov et al., 2001). This is accomplished
by measuring the energy loss dynamics (ELD) of the
beam emerging from the back surface of the target. For this
purpose, a new time-resolving energy loss spectrometer
(scintillating Bragg-peak (SBP) spectrometer) has been developed.
In our experiments we have measured energy loss dynamics of
intense beams of 238U, 86Kr, 40Ar,
and 18O ions during the interaction with solid rare-gas
targets, such as solid Ne and solid Xe. We observed continuous
reduction in the energy loss during the interaction time due
to rapid hydrodynamic response of the ion-beam-heated target
matter. These are the first measurements of this kind.
Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations were carried out using
the beam and target parameters of the experiments. The conducted
research has established that the ELD measurement technique
is an excellent diagnostic method for HED matter. It specifically
allows for direct and quantitative comparison with the results
of hydrodynamic simulations, providing experimental data for
verification of computer codes and underlying theoretical models.
The ELD measurements will be used as a standard diagnostics
in the future experiments on investigation of the HED matter
induced by intense heavy ion beams, such as the HI-HEX (Heavy
Ion Heating and EXpansion) EOS studies (Hoffmann et al.,
The dynamics of low entropy weak shock waves induced by heavy
ion beams in solid targets was investigated by means of a schlieren
technique. The targets consist of a metallic absorber for the
beam energy deposition followed by a plexiglass block for optical
observations. Multiple waves propagating with supersonic velocities
at 15 kbar pressures were observed in the plexiglass, for pressures
of up to 70 kbar numerically calculated in the absorbers. Pressures
in the megabar ranges are predicted for a near future beam upgrade,
enabling studies of phase transition to metallic states of H,
Kr, and Xe.
This article reports on the interaction between slow
ions and a partially ionized plasma. Temporal evolutions
of energy loss and charge distribution of 2.4 MeV oxygen
beams in the laser-induced polyethylene plasma were measured.
The charge distribution showed strong stripping ability
in the early phase of the plasma. Stopping power deduced
from the experimental energy loss was 1.9 times larger
than that for the solid. The effective charge of the projectile
ion was estimated from the yields of 4+ and 6+ states.
The peak value of the effective charge was 1.4 times larger
than that of the solid. The stopping power equation given
by Sigmund was extended for the partially ionized plasma
and it could reproduce the measured energy loss.
An energy loss of 240 MeV argon ions in a Z-pinch
helium plasma has been for the first time observed throughout
the entire pinching process. Standard Stark broadening
analysis gives an electron density ranging from 4 to 6
× 1017 cm−3 during the
pinch. To deduce stopping power from the energy loss, the
target thickness of the helium plasma has been evaluated
assuming the mean charge of helium based on thermal equilibrium.
The observed electron density and the mean charge of helium
give a target thickness of 30 ± 3 μg cm−2
from 1 μs to 1.8 μs after the discharge ignition.
The measured stopping power exceeds a tabulated value for
cold helium gas by a factor of 2 to 3 around the time of
the first pinch. The experimental stopping power is compared
with theoretical values calculated using an equation of
stopping power for a partially ionized plasma.
The hydrodynamic response of metal targets to volume
heating by energy deposition of intense heavy-ion beams
was investigated experimentally. Recent improvements in
beam parameters led to a marked increase in specific deposition
ions of 300 MeV/u focused to a spot size of 300 μm
(σ) × 540 μm (σ) yield a specific deposition
energy in solid lead of approximately 1 kJ/g in the Bragg
peak, delivered within 250 ns [full width at half
maximum (FWHM)]. This value allowed us for the first
time to observe heavy-ion-beam-induced hydrodynamic expansion
of metal volume targets. Measurements comprise expansion
velocities of free surfaces of up to 290 ± 20 m/s,
surface temperatures of ejected target matter of 1600–1750
K, and pressure waves in solid metal bulk targets of 0.16
GPa maximum absolute value and 0.8 μs FWHM. The experimental
results agree well with the results of a 2D hydrodynamic
code. Inside the interaction zone, which can only be accessed
by simulation, maximum temperatures are 2800 K and maximum
pressures are 3.8 GPa.
Focusing of heavy-ion beams is an important issue for ion beam-driven inertial confinement fusion. For the experimental program to investigate matter at high energy densities at GSI, the application of a plasma lens has attractive features compared to standard quadrupole lenses. A plasma lens using a wall-stabilized discharge has been systematically investigated and optimized for this purpose. Different lenses were tested in several runs at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC and at the SIS-synchrotron. A remarkably high accuracy and reproducibility of the focusing were found. The focal spot size was mainly limited by the beam emittance. A summary of experimental results and important limitations of the focal spot size is given.
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