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Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in well-resourced countries has been associated with reductions in antibiotic-resistant infections and improved patient outcomes. Several guidance documents providing recommendations on how to structure antimicrobial stewardship activities at the national and hospital level in resource-limited settings have been published. However, few hospitals in Latin America report having a structure or resources needed for a successful ASP. Given the alarming increases in antimicrobial resistance in Latin America, better understanding of barriers to promote implementation of effective ASPs is urgently needed. We have summarized past and present antimicrobial stewardship activities in Latin American hospitals, and we describe key elements needed in future efforts to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship in the region.
This retrospective study was conducted to determine whether the number of peripherally inserted central-catheter lumens affected the rate of central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in adult patients with acute leukemia. The results show that CLABSI rates were not significantly different between patients with triple-lumen or double-lumen PICCs (22.1% vs 23.4%; P = .827).
To address appropriateness of antibiotic use, we implemented an electronic framework to evaluate antibiotic “never events” (NEs) at 2 medical centers. Patient-level vancomycin administration records were classified as NEs or non-NEs. The objective framework allowed capture of true-positive vancomycin NEs in one-third of patients identified by the electronic strategy.
Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a leading cause of nosocomial infections that carries an increased risk of mortality when compared to vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE). Data on the frequency of conversion between VSE and VRE in patients are scarce. Among patients presenting with VSE infections, little is known about the subsequent risk of conversion to VRE in the initial treatment period. Methods: A descriptive analysis of VSE to VRE conversion and a retrospective case-control study were performed examining cases of VSE that had subsequent cultures positive for VRE within 90 days within a quaternary healthcare system. Cases were obtained from June 2013 through December 2018. Controls were patients who had VSE culture followed by another VSE culture and were matched by organism (E. faecalis or E. faecium), time between cultures, and initial culture site. Age, gender, healthcare, antibiotic, Clostridiodes difficile, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure, and H2 blocker exposures, and prior VRE infection or colonization were abstracted from the electronic medical record. A univariate analysis with the Fisher exact test was performed with significance considered for P < .05. Results: In total, 8,913 cases of E. faecalis and 2,322 cases of E. faecium were included in the study. Of 8,913 cases of E. faecalis, 51 of 8,503 (0.6%) cultured VRE after VSE, and 47 of 403 (11.7%) cultured VSE after initial VRE. Of E. faecium, 51 of 783 (6.5%) cultured VRE after VSE, and 76 of 1,532 (5.0%) cultured VSE after initial VRE. In total, 76 cases were matched with 99 controls. Patients converting from VSE to VRE were more likely to have prior admission to an intensive care unit (P = .0207), prior positive swab or culture for VRE (P = .0114), previous C. difficile infection (P = .0155), prior vancomycin (P = .0022) and cefepime (P = .0089) exposure. Patients receiving vancomycin after initial VSE culture were more likely to have subsequent cultures positive for VRE (P = .0053). There was no difference in age (P = .966) or male sex (P = .7588). Conclusions: Conversion from VSE to VRE is common, and E. faecium is more likely to become resistant than E. faecalis. Reversion to a vancomycin-sensitive phenotype is also common, and E. faecalis is more likely to show subsequent sensitivity than E. faecium. Previous admission to an intensive care unit, prior colonization or infection with VRE, prior C. difficile infection, and exposure to vancomycin and cefepime are risk factors for emergence of VRE after treatment for vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus.
To evaluate whether incorporating mandatory prior authorization for Clostridioides difficile testing into antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist workflow could reduce testing in patients with alternative etiologies for diarrhea.
Single center, quasi-experimental before-and-after study.
Tertiary-care, academic medical center in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Adult and pediatric patients admitted between September 11, 2019 and December 10, 2019 were included if they had an order placed for 1 of the following: (1) C. difficile enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in patients hospitalized >72 hours and received laxatives, oral contrast, or initiated tube feeds within the prior 48 hours, (2) repeat molecular multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GIPAN) testing, or (3) GIPAN testing in patients hospitalized >72 hours.
A best-practice alert prompting prior authorization by the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) for EIA or GIPAN testing was implemented. Approval required the provider to page the ASP pharmacist and discuss rationale for testing. The provider could not proceed with the order if ASP approval was not obtained.
An average of 2.5 requests per day were received over the 3-month intervention period. The weekly rate of EIA and GIPAN orders per 1,000 patient days decreased significantly from 6.05 ± 0.94 to 4.87 ± 0.78 (IRR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56–0.93; P = .010) and from 1.72 ± 0.37 to 0.89 ± 0.29 (IRR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37–0.77; P = .001), respectively.
We identified an efficient, effective C. difficile and GIPAN diagnostic stewardship approval model.
Inappropriate antibiotic use is associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and adverse events that can lead to further downstream patient harm. Preventative strategies must be employed to improve antibiotic use while reducing avoidable harm. We use the term “antibiotic never events” to globally recognize and define the most inappropriate antibiotic use.
We report daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from bloodstream infections over a 4-year period. The daptomycin MIC increased over time hospital-wide for initial isolates and increased over time within patients, culminating in 40% of patients having daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolates in the final year of the study.