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Social functioning is crucial for daily living and is an essential indicator of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease. The pattern of social functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia (i.e. those who are cognitively intact or have mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI)) and its determinants are unclear.
In exploring the heterogeneity of social functioning among patients with Parkinson's disease-associated dementia, we determined the optimal cut-off score of the Parkinson's Disease Social Functioning Scale (PDSFS) for patients with PD-MCI, and the variables influencing patients’ social functioning.
A total of 302 participants underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and PDSFS; 120 patients with Parkinson's disease completed the measurements (MMSE, Activities of Daily Living Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory). Group comparisons, receiver operating characteristic curves, Spearman correlation and multiple and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted.
The PD-MCI group scored the lowest on the PDSFS (F = 10.10, P < 0.001). The PDSFS cut-off score was 53 (area under the curve 0.700, sensitivity 0.800, specificity 0.534). The MMSE (β = 0.293, P = 0.002), Activities of Daily Living Scale (β = 0.189, P = 0.028) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (β = −0.216, P = 0.005) scores predicted the PDSFS score. Further, there was an interaction effect between the Activities of Daily Living Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores on the PDSFS score (β = 0.305, P < 0.001).
We determined a PDSFS cut-off score for detecting PD-MCI and found that patients with PD-MCI have social dysfunction. Future research should focus on the effects of neuropsychiatry symptoms and activities of daily living on social functioning, and tailor the intervention programme for patients with Parkinson's disease.
Nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of amorphous chalcogenide Ga–Sb–Te films with compositions along the pseudo-binary tie-lines connecting Sb7Te3−GaSb and Sb2Te3–GaSb of the ternary phase diagram were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Powder samples were prepared firstly by film deposition using a co-sputtering method; the films were then stripped from the substrate. The activation energy (Ea) and rate factor (Ko) were evaluated from the heating rate dependency of the crystallization temperature using the Kissinger method. The kinetic exponent (n) was deduced from the exothermic peak integrals using the Ozawa method. The crystallization temperature (Tx = 181 to 327 °C) and activation energy (Ea= 2.8 to 6.5 eV) increased monotonically with increasing GaSb content and reached a maximum value in compositions located at the vicinity of GaSb. The kinetic exponent is temperature dependent and shows higher values in the SbTe-rich compositions. Promising media compositions worthy of further studies were identified through the determined kinetics parameters.
Isothermal crystallization kinetics of amorphous Ga–Sb–Te films was studied by means of a time-resolved optical transmission method. Thin films with compositions along the pseudo-binary tie-lines Sb7Te3–GaSb and Sb2Te3–GaSb in the ternary phase diagram were prepared by the co-sputtering method. Crystallization of GaSbTe films reveals a two-stage process: an initial surface nucleation and coarsening (Stage 1) followed by the one-dimensional grain growth (Stage 2). The kinetic exponent (n) value in Stage 1 shows strong dependence on film compositions, while that of Stage 2 is less dependent. The activation energy in Stage 1 increases with increasing GaSb content and reaches the maximum values at compositions close to GaSb, but a decreasing trend was observed in Stage 2. Kinetics parameters between isothermal crystallization of thin films and non-isothermal crystallization of powder samples analyzed by differential scanning colorimetry [J. Mater. Res. 19, 2929 (2004)] are compared. The kinetic parameters in Stage 1 show much correspondence with those of non-isothermal cases in comparable kinetic exponents but with lower activation energies. The discrepancies between nonisothermal and isothermal kinetics are attributed to the sample morphology and the constraint effects.
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