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Post COVID-19 condition (PCC) refers to persistent or recurring symptoms (>8 weeks) occurring ≤12 weeks following acute COVID-19. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the evidence on the risk of PCC with vaccination before or after COVID-19 or after developing PCC, and the safety of vaccination among those already experiencing PCC. A search was conducted up to 13 December 2022 and standard systematic review methodology was followed. Thirty-one observational studies were included. There is moderate confidence that two doses of vaccine given pre-infection reduced the odds of PCC (pooled OR (pOR) 0.67, 95% CI 0.60–0.74, I2 = 59.9%), but low confidence that one dose may not reduce the odds (pOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.31#x2013;1.31, I2 = 99.2%), and the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of three doses (pOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.10#x2013;1.99, I2 = 30.9%). One of three studies suggested vaccination shortly after COVID-19 may offer additional protection from developing PCC compared to unvaccinated individuals, but this evidence was very uncertain. For those with PCC, vaccination was not associated with worsening PCC symptoms (10 studies) and appears safe (3 studies), but it is unclear if vaccination may change established PCC symptoms.
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