The coverage of health insurance as measured by enrollment rates has increased significantly in Vietnam. However, maintaining health insurance to the some groups such as the farmer, the borderline poor and informal workers, etc. has been very challenging. This paper examines the situation of health insurance drop-out among the adult population in sub-rural areas of Northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2013, and analyzes several socio-economic correlates of the health insurance drop-out situation. Data used in this paper were obtained from Health and Demographic Surveillance System located in Chi Linh district, an urbanizing area, in a northern province of Vietnam. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the level and distribution of the health insurance drop-out status. Multiple logistic regressions were used to assess associations between the health insurance drop-out status and the independent variables. A total of 32 561 adults were investigated. We found that the cumulative percentage of health insurance drop-out among the study participants was 21.2%. Health insurance drop-out rates were higher among younger age groups, people with lower education, and those who worked as small trader and other informal jobs, and belonged to the non-poor households. Given the findings, further attention toward health insurance among these special populations is needed.