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The evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs), which are the main sites of star formation, is essential for unraveling how stars form and how galaxies evolve. We analyzed the M33 CO(J = 2–1) data with spatial resolution of 39 pc obtained by ALMA-ACA 7 m array combined with IRAM 30 m. We identified 736 GMCs and classified them into three types; Type I: associated with no Hii regions, Type II: associated with Hii regions with the Hα luminosity L(Hα) < 1037.5 erg s-1, Type III: associated with Hii regions with L(Hα) > 1037.5erg s-1. We found that mass, size, and velocity dispersion of GMCs slightly increase in the order of Type I, II, and III GMCs. Type III GMCs mainly exist in the spiral arm, while many of Type I and Type II GMCs are distributed in the inter-arm. Assuming that the star formation proceeds steadily, we roughly estimated the total GMC lifetime of 30 Myr.
Donor-acceptor mixed-stack charge-transfer (CT) compounds can be regarded as a model system for charge carrier separation in molecular-scale donor-acceptor heterojunctions. Here we investigated fundamental photocarrier generation characteristics in single crystals of a donoracceptor mixed-stack system, phenothiazine-tetracyanoquinodimethane (PTZ-TCNQ). The laser beam-induced current (LBIC) measurement on the crystals allowed the discrimination between the exciton and the photocarrier diffusion on the basis of the observed spatial decay profiles. We found that the photocarriers are directly generated by higher-lying CT band excitation and exhibit extremely long diffusion length reaching more than 10 μm. We discuss the origin of the efficient photocarrier generation in terms of the geminate electron-hole pair formation.
In this study, doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM with the composition La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ, LSGMC with the composition La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.15Co0.05O3-δ) films for an electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In the vacuum chamber, LSGM or LSGMC targets were set on the rotating target holder. A KrF excimer laser was introduced into the chamber at an incident angle of about 45 degree. The doped LaGaO3 film was deposited onto NiO substrates without heating in argon ambient gas. The NiO substrate can be used directly as an electrode in the fabrication of the SOFC. The deposited LSGM films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As-deposited films were amorphous. After post annealing at 1273K for 6-10 hours, crystalline LaGaO3 was obtained. Films with thickness greater than several 10 μm showed an uniform and dense morphology. No gas leakage was found using thick films, which is an important characteristic for an electrolyte in fuel cells. The composition of the deposited films was slightly different to that of the target.
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