To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Engaging students with the far-distant past can be a challenge. We established Hands Up Education, a non-profit community interest company, in 2017 in recognition of the need for materials that reflect the priorities of today’s students and teachers. Writing a new textbook series provided an opportunity to reevaluate the traditional perspective and prioritise what is important for students learning Latin in the 21st century.
This study examined mental health status among Hurricane Sandy survivors in the most severely damaged areas of New York and New Jersey in 2014, approximately 2 years after this disaster. We used the 2014 Associated Press NORC survey of 1009 Sandy survivors to measure the prevalence of probable mental illness and to analyze its association with selected socioeconomic characteristics of survivors, direct impact by Sandy, as well as social support and social trust. The study found major disparities in mental illness by race/ethnicity, age groups, and employment status. Higher Sandy impact levels were strongly associated with higher rates of mental illness and accounted for much of the disparity between blacks and Hispanics compared with whites in our study group. Social support was more strongly associated with lower rates of mental illness than was social trust. In addition, social support served as a significant mitigating factor in the mental health disparities between blacks and whites. The severity of mental illness among Sandy survivors differed significantly among racial and ethnic groups but was moderated by both the direct impact of this disaster on their lives and the degree of social support they received, as well as how trusting they were.
Major depressive disorder and neuroticism (Neu) share a large genetic basis. We sought to determine whether this shared basis could be decomposed to identify genetic factors that are specific to depression.
We analysed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depression (from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 23andMe and UK Biobank) and compared them with GWAS of Neu (from UK Biobank). First, we used a pairwise GWAS analysis to classify variants as associated with only depression, with only Neu or with both. Second, we estimated partial genetic correlations to test whether the depression's genetic link with other phenotypes was explained by shared overlap with Neu.
We found evidence that most genomic regions (25/37) associated with depression are likely to be shared with Neu. The overlapping common genetic variance of depression and Neu was genetically correlated primarily with psychiatric disorders. We found that the genetic contributions to depression, that were not shared with Neu, were positively correlated with metabolic phenotypes and cardiovascular disease, and negatively correlated with the personality trait conscientiousness. After removing shared genetic overlap with Neu, depression still had a specific association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, coronary artery disease and age of first birth. Independent of depression, Neu had specific genetic correlates in ulcerative colitis, pubertal growth, anorexia and education.
Our findings demonstrate that, while genetic risk factors for depression are largely shared with Neu, there are also non-Neu-related features of depression that may be useful for further patient or phenotypic stratification.
The objective of this study was to explore preferred self-care practices among paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) who responded to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack (9/11) in New York City (New York USA).
Design, Setting, and Participants:
Qualitative research methodology with convenience and subsequent snowball sampling was utilized. Participants were adult (at least 18 years of age) paramedics or EMTs who self-reported as responding to the 9/11 terrorist attack in New York City.
Main Outcome Measures:
Preferred self-care practices; participant characteristics; indications and patterns of self-care use; perceived benefits and harms; and views on appropriate availability of support and self-care services were the main outcome measures.
The 9/11 paramedic and EMT participants reported a delay in recognizing the need for self-care. Preferred physical self-care practices included exercise, good nutrition, getting enough sleep, and sticking to routine. Preferred psychosocial self-care practices included spending time with family and friends, participating in peer-support programs and online support forums, and routinely seeing a mental health professional. Self-care was important for younger paramedics and EMTs who reported having less-developed supportive infrastructure around them, as well as for retiring paramedics and EMTs who often felt left behind by a system they had dedicated their lives to. Access to cooking classes and subsidized gym memberships were viewed as favorable, as was the ability to include family members in self-care practices.
A range of physical and psychosocial self-care practices should be encouraged among paramedic students and implemented by Australian ambulance services to ensure the health and well-being of paramedics throughout their career and into retirement.
Low birth weight has been inconsistently associated with risk of
developing affective disorders, including major depressive disorder
(MDD). To date, studies investigating possible associations between birth
weight and bipolar disorder (BD), or personality traits known to
predispose to affective disorders such as neuroticism, have not been
conducted in large cohorts.
To assess whether very low birth weight (<1500 g) and low birth weight
(1500–2490 g) were associated with higher neuroticism scores assessed in
middle age, and lifetime history of either MDD or BD. We controlled for
possible confounding factors.
Retrospective cohort study using baseline data on the 83 545 UK Biobank
participants with detailed mental health and birth weight data. Main
outcomes were prevalent MDD and BD, and neuroticism assessed using the
Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism scale - Revised (EPIN-R)
Referent to normal birth weight, very low/low birth weight were
associated with higher neuroticism scores, increased MDD and BD. The
associations between birth weight category and MDD were partially
mediated by higher neuroticism.
These findings suggest that intrauterine programming may play a role in
lifetime vulnerability to affective disorders.
In this study an explicit Finite Difference Method (FDM) based scheme is developed to solve the Maxwell's equations in time domain for a lossless medium. This manuscript focuses on two unique aspects – the three dimensional time-accurate discretization of the hyperbolic system of Maxwell equations in three-point non-staggered grid stencil and it's application to parallel computing through the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The proposed temporal scheme is symplectic, thus permitting conservation of all Hamiltonians in the Maxwell equation. Moreover, to enable accurate predictions over large time frames, a phase velocity preserving scheme is developed for treatment of the spatial derivative terms. As a result, the chosen time increment and grid spacing can be optimally coupled. An additional theoretical investigation into this pairing is also shown. Finally, the application of the proposed scheme to parallel computing using one Nvidia K20 Tesla GPU card is demonstrated. For the benchmarks performed, the parallel speedup when compared to a single core of an Intel i7-4820K CPU is approximately 190x.
Dramatic increases in human populations and per capita consumption, climate change, overexploitation of marine and freshwater resources, and deforestation have caused a litany of negative consequences for biodiversity. Such doom-and-gloom scenarios are widely known, frequently cited and frankly depressing. Although accurate assessments of threats have clear value for intervention planning, we believe there is also a need to reflect on successes. Such reflection provides balance to negative scenarios and may shift attention towards constructive, positive action. Here we use a systematic evaluation of 90 success stories provided by conservation scientists and practitioners to explore the characteristics of the projects perceived as being associated with success. Success was deemed to have occurred for 19.4% of the projects simply because an event had occurred (e.g. a law was passed) and for 36.1% of projects quantitative data indicated success (e.g. censuses demonstrated population increase). However, for most projects (63.9%) there was no evaluation and success was defined by the subjective opinion of the respondent. Conservation community members viewed successful projects most often as those being long-term (88%), small in spatial scale (52%), with a relatively low budget (68%), and involving a protectionist approach alone or in combination with another approach. These results highlight the subjectivity of definitions of success in conservation but also the characteristics of conservation efforts that the conservation community perceives as indicative of success.
With the ATNF Mopra telescope we are performing a survey in the 12CO(1–0) line to map the molecular gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. For some regions we also obtained interferometric maps of the high density gas tracers HCO+ and HCN with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Here we discuss the properties of the elongated molecular complex that stretches about 2 kpc southward from 30 Doradus. Our data suggest that the complex, which we refer to as the ‘molecular ridge’, is not a coherent feature but consists of many smaller clumps that share the same formation history. Likely triggers of molecular-cloud formation are shocks and shearing forces that are present in the surrounding south-eastern Hi overdensity region, a region influenced by strong ram pressure and tidal forces. The molecular ridge is at the western edge of the the overdensity region where a bifurcated velocity structure transitions into a single disk velocity component. We find that the 12CO(1–0) and Hi emission peaks in the molecular ridge are typically near each other but never coincide. A likely explanation is the conversion of warmer, low-opacity Hi to colder, high-opacity Hi from which H2 subsequently forms. On smaller scales we find that very dense molecular gas, as traced by interferometric HCO+ and HCN maps, is associated with star formation along shocked filaments and with rims of expanding shell-like structures, both created by feedback from massive stars.
Thin-film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is one of the most efficient electromechanical coupling transducer materials currently available for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This article reviews piezoelectric MEMS (piezo MEMS) technologies using PZT thin films in radio frequency (RF) devices for communications and radar applications and in the emerging field of millimeter-scale robotics. The electromechanical material properties of thin-film PZT uniquely enable insect-inspired and insect-scale autonomous robots. Recent progress on large force and displacement actuators for robotic leg joints, compact and high torque ultrasonic motors, and bioinspired millimeter-scale flapping wing platforms will be presented. The use of thin-film PZT to achieve high performance and low-voltage RF MEMS switches, ultralow power consumption nanomechanical logic circuits, and high coupling and low loss resonators, filters, and transformers are also reviewed.
The remains of the first Iron Age chariot burial in Britain outside Yorkshire were discovered during the winter of 2000–1, near the Bronze Age burial mound of Huly Hill, at Newbridge, Edinburgh. Excavated by Headland Archaeology (UK) Ltd with the assistance of the National Museums Scotland, the chariot proved unique beyond just its burial location. The Newbridge chariot was buried intact, a method consistent with the burial practices of Continental Europe rather than Yorkshire, where they were predominantly buried disassembled. Detailed post-excavation analysis revealed a history of repair and reuse, and construction techniques that indicate links with the chariot building traditions of both Yorkshire and Continental Europe. Fifth century bc radiocarbon dates for the burial place it firmly within La Tène A, consistent with its similarities to European examples and indicating that it pre-dates the known Yorkshire examples. This indicates the emergence of a British tradition of chariot construction by this time, familiar with Continental habits and technology but distinctively different in such areas as wheel construction and suspension fittings. Based on the findings, a reconstruction of the chariot was built for display in the National Museums Scotland, providing an opportunity further to understand and confirm the construction techniques observed or hypothesised during excavation.
The present study examines the receptivity to and potential effects of menu labelling on food choices of low-income and minority individuals – a group often at disproportionate risk for preventable, lifestyle-related health conditions (e.g. obesity, diabetes and CVD).
We conducted a cross-sectional survey to examine the knowledge, attitudes and potential response to menu labelling in an urban public health clinic population.
A total of 639 clinic patients were recruited in the waiting rooms of six, large public health centres in Los Angeles County (2007–2008). These centres provide services to a largely uninsured or under-insured, low-income, Latino and African-American population.
Among those approached and who met eligibility criteria, 88 % completed the survey. Of the 639 respondents, 55 % were overweight or obese based on self-reported heights and weights; 74 % reported visiting a fast food restaurant at least once in the past year, including 22 % at least once a week; 93 % thought that calorie information was ‘important’; and 86 % thought that restaurants should be required to post calorie information on their menu boards. In multivariate analyses, respondents who were obese, female, Latino and supportive of calorie postings were more likely than others to report that they would choose food and beverages with lower calories as a result of menu labelling.
These findings suggest that clinic patients are receptive to this population-based strategy and that they would be inclined to change their food selections in response to menu labelling.