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The COVID-19 pandemic led to an initial increase in the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) from clinical cultures in South-East Asia hospitals, which was unsustained as the pandemic progressed. Conversely, there was a decrease in CRE incidence from surveillance cultures and overall combined incidence. Further studies are needed for future pandemic preparedness.
A growing appreciation of the potential benefits of experimentation to tame the complexities of urban transformation has led to an increase in related research activity. Building on a “practice-to-policy” experimentation-based framework, this paper investigates the adaptive policymaking process for urban regeneration in Shenzhen since the 2000s. It finds that “explorative experimentation” is used to identify a general direction in the absence of a clear route for the policy process, while “generative experimentation” is sequentially dedicated to specific issues for the improvement of the entire policy package within a particular reform. We argue that understanding the successive roles or hybrid functions of these two types of experiment adds new insights to the development rationales for Shenzhen's urban regeneration and provides inspiration for an experimental model of urban governance. Governments and policymakers can benefit from the experimentation-based approach, as presented in the Shenzhen case, to pursue policy innovation embedded in local contexts.
Despite observed ethnic differences in eating patterns and obesity, evidence in China is limited. This study examined ethnic differences in eating patterns and their associations with weight outcomes among multi-ethnic adults in West China. A cross-sectional survey collected self-reported data on demographics, eating behaviours, weight and height in 2021. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression were conducted to identify eating patterns and examine their associations with weight outcomes. In total, 4407 subjects aged ≥ 18 years were recruited across seven provinces in West China. Four eating patterns were identified: ‘meat-lover’ – characterised by frequent consumption of meat and dairy products, ‘indulgent’ – by frequent intakes of added salt, sugar, alcohol and pickled food, ‘diversified-eating’ – by frequently consuming food with diversified cooking methods and eating out and ‘nutri-health-concerned’ – by good food hygiene behaviours and reading food labels. Ethnic differences in eating patterns were observed. Compared with Han, Hui were less likely to exhibit meat-lover or diversified-eating patterns; Tibetans were less likely to have meat-lover or nutri-health-concerned patterns; Mongolians were more likely to have indulgent pattern. BMI was positively associated with meat-lover pattern in both genders (exp(β): 1·029; 95 % CI: 1·001, 1·058 for men; 1·018; 1·000, 1·036 for women) and negatively associated with nutri-health-concerned pattern in women (0·983; 0·966, 1·000). Mongolians were two times more likely to be overweight/obese than Han (OR: 3·126; 1·688, 5·790). Considerable ethnic differences existed in eating patterns in West China. Mongolians were more likely to be overweight/obese, which was associated with their indulgent eating patterns. Ethnic-specific healthy eating intervention programs are needed.
The discharged capillary plasma channel has been extensively studied as a high-gradient particle acceleration and transmission medium. A novel measurement method of plasma channel density profiles has been employed, where the role of plasma channels guiding the advantages of lasers has shown strong appeal. Here, we have studied the high-order transverse plasma density profile distribution using a channel-guided laser, and made detailed measurements of its evolution under various parameters. The paraxial wave equation in a plasma channel with high-order density profile components is analyzed, and the approximate propagation process based on the Gaussian profile laser is obtained on this basis, which agrees well with the simulation under phase conditions. In the experiments, by measuring the integrated transverse laser intensities at the outlet of the channels, the radial quartic density profiles of the plasma channels have been obtained. By precisely synchronizing the detection laser pulses and the plasma channels at various moments, the reconstructed density profile shows an evolution from the radial quartic profile to the quasi-parabolic profile, and the high-order component is indicated as an exponential decline tendency over time. Factors affecting the evolution rate were investigated by varying the incentive source and capillary parameters. It can be found that the discharge voltages and currents are positive factors quickening the evolution, while the electron-ion heating, capillary radii and pressures are negative ones. One plausible explanation is that quartic profile contributions may be linked to plasma heating. This work helps one to understand the mechanisms of the formation, the evolutions of the guiding channel electron-density profiles and their dependences on the external controllable parameters. It provides support and reflection for physical research on discharged capillary plasma and optimizing plasma channels in various applications.
In this study, a toroidal quartz (
) crystal is designed for monochromatic X-ray imaging at 72.3°. The designed crystal produces excellent images of a laser-produced plasma emitting He-like Ti X-rays at 4.75 keV. Based on the simulations, the imaging resolutions of the spherical and toroidal crystals in the sagittal direction are found to be 15 and 5 μm, respectively. Moreover, the simulation results show that a higher resolution image of the source can be obtained by using a toroidal crystal. An X-ray backlight imaging experiment is conducted using 4.75 keV He-like Ti X-rays, a 3 × 3 metal grid, an imaging plate and a toroidal quartz crystal with a lattice constant of 2d = 0.2749 nm. The meridional and sagittal radii of the toroidal α-quartz crystal are 295.6 and 268.5 mm, respectively. A highly resolved image of the microgrid, with a spatial resolution of 10 μm, is obtained in the experiment. By using similar toroidal crystal designs, the application of a spatially resolved spectrometer with high-resolution X-ray imaging ability is capable of providing imaging data with the same magnification ratio in the sagittal and meridional planes.
The fish-eye star sensor with a field of view (FOV) of 180° is an important piece of equipment for attitude determination, which improves the visibility of stars significantly. However, it also brings the star identification (star-ID) difficulties because of imprecise calibrations. Thus, a fish-eye star-ID algorithm supported by the integration of the precise point positioning/inertial navigation system (PPP/INS) is proposed. At first, a reference star map is generated in combination with the distortion model of the fish-eye camera based on the position and attitude information from the PPP/INS. Then the star points are extracted in a specific neighbourhood of the reference star points. Subsequently, the extracted star points are individually tested and identified according to angular distance error. Finally, the real-time precise attitude is determined based on the star-ID results. Experimental results show that, 270–310 stars can be identified in a fish-eye star map with an average time of 0.03 s if the initial attitude error is smaller than 1.5° and an attitude determination accuracy better than 10″ can be achieved by support from PPP/INS.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.
Sporadic clusters of healthcare-associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred despite intense rostered routine surveillance and a highly vaccinated healthcare worker (HCW) population, during a community surge of the severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.617.2 δ (delta) variant. Genomic analysis facilitated timely cluster detection and uncovered additional linkages via HCWs moving between clinical areas and among HCWs sharing a common lunch area, enabling early intervention.
Listeriosis is a rare but serious foodborne disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes. This matched case–control study (1:1 ratio) aimed to identify the risk factors associated with food consumption and food-handling habits for the occurrence of sporadic listeriosis in Beijing, China. Cases were defined as patients from whom Listeria was isolated, in addition to the presence of symptoms, including fever, bacteraemia, sepsis and other clinical manifestations corresponding to listeriosis, which were reported via the Beijing Foodborne Disease Surveillance System. Basic patient information and possible risk factors associated with food consumption and food-handling habits were collected through face-to-face interviews. One hundred and six cases were enrolled from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2020, including 52 perinatal cases and 54 non-perinatal cases. In the non-perinatal group, the consumption of Chinese cold dishes increased the risk of infection by 3.43-fold (95% confidence interval 1.27–9.25, χ2 = 5.92, P = 0.02). In the perinatal group, the risk of infection reduced by 95.2% when raw and cooked foods were well-separated (χ2 = 5.11, P = 0.02). These findings provide important scientific evidence for preventing infection by L. monocytogenes and improving the dissemination of advice regarding food safety for vulnerable populations.
We elucidate the vortex dynamics of flows past a flapping plate using the vortex-surface field (VSF) and develop models for estimating thrust from shedding vortex surfaces in wakes. The VSF evolution is calculated from numerical simulation using the immersed boundary method. The VSF visualization reveals that a spoon-like vortex surface dominated by tip vortex lines is formed and periodically shed into the wake owing to the alternating upstroke and downstroke of the flapping plate. We simplify the finite-domain impulse theory based on a particular vortex surface. The simplified theory demonstrates that the force on the plate is only dependent on the vortical impulse and Lamb-vector integral of the vortex surface enclosing the plate. Then, we propose a time-averaged thrust model from near-wake discrete vortex surfaces, where the incorporation of the Lamb-vector integral significantly improves the model estimation from the impulse model. Furthermore, we estimate the mean thrust based on two arbitrary vortex surfaces in the far wake from the linear impulse decay of periodically shedding vortex surfaces, which provides a possible approach to infer the state of the moving body in experimental investigation and practical applications.
Fullerene dimers have attracted extensive attention due to their unique structures and fascinating properties. Here, fullerene dimer derivatives with four to six carbon atoms in the esters are designed and synthesized. The property differences that caused by the carbon number in the esters of the fullerene dimers are investigated by performing their electrochemical, optical, and photoelectric measurements. As the carbon atom numbers in the esters increase from four to five and six, the absorption intensities increase to 1.6- and 4.4-folds. The intensities of the fluorescence spectra increase to 1.8- and 5.2-folds. Their photocurrent increases to 2- and 7-folds under the irradiation of a 405-nm laser. The LUMO energy levels move downward slightly from −3.89 to −3.90 and −3.92 eV, respectively. Our results indicate that as the carbon number increases, the carbon chain lengths in the ester structures increase, very slight effects produced on the energy levels of the fullerene dimers, but strongly contribute to their chemical activities and thus the photoelectronic efficiencies.
The Ordovician–Silurian (O–S) transition was a critical interval in geological history. Multiple geochemical methods are used to explore the changes in oceanic environment. The Nd isotopic compositions in the Yangtze Sea are controlled by two sources: the continental erosion and the Panthalassa Ocean. High εNd(t) values during the Katian, late Hirnantian and Rhuddanian intervals are associated with the high sea level, which resulted in less terrestrial input based on the low Ti/Al and Zr/Al ratios. In contrast, low εNd(t) values during the early Hirnantian interval are related to the sea-level fall; in this case, the exposure of submarine highs and the growth of Yangtze Oldlands could lead to more continental materials being transported into the Yangtze Sea based on high Ti/Al and Zr/Al ratios. In addition, the negative εNd(t) excursion can also be attributed to the weak circulation between the Yangtze Sea and Panthalassa Ocean when sea level was low. Furthermore, the sea-level eustacy plays a significant role in the changes in redox water conditions. The redox indices, mainly UEF, Ce/Ce* and Corg/PT, across the O–S transition show a predominance of anoxic ocean over the Yangtze Sea during the Katian, late Hirnantian and Rhuddanian intervals, and an oxygenated episode was briefly introduced during the early Hirnantian period because of the fall in sea level. The Late Ordovician biotic crisis was marked by two-phase extinction events, and the change in sea level and redox chemistry may be the important kill mechanisms.
We conducted active surveillance of acute respiratory viral infections (ARIs) among residents and healthcare personnel (HCP) at a long-term care facility during the 2015–2016 respiratory illness season. ARIs were observed among both HCP and patients, highlighting the importance of including HCP in surveillance programs.
Androgenetic embryonic stem (AgES) cells offer a possible tool for patient-specific pluripotent stem cells that will benefit genomic imprinting studies and clinic applications. However, the difficulty in producing androgenetic embryos and the unbalanced expression of imprinted genes make the therapeutic applicability of AgES cells uncertain. In this study, we produced androgenetic embryos by injecting two sperm into an enucleated metaphase II (MII) oocyte. By this method, 88.48% of oocytes survived after injection, and 20.24% of these developed to the blastocyst stage. We successfully generated AgES cell lines from the androgenetic embryos and assayed the expression of imprinted genes in the cell lines. We found that the morphological characteristics of AgES cells were similar to that of fertilized embryonic stem cells (fES), such as expression of key pluripotent markers, and generation of cell derivatives representing all three germ layers following in vivo and in vitro differentiation. Furthermore, activation of paternal imprinted genes was detected, H19, ASC12 and Tss3 in AgES cell activation levels were lower while other examined genes showed no significant difference to that of fES cells. Interestingly, among examined maternal imprinted genes, only Mest and Igf2 were significantly increased, while levels of other detected genes were no different to that of fES cells. These results demonstrated that activation of some paternal imprinted genes, as well as recovery of maternal imprinted genes, was present in AgES cells. We differentiated AgES cells into a beating embryoid body in vitro, and discovered that the AgES cells did not show significant higher efficiency in myocardial differentiation potential.
This paper is concerned with the travelling waves for a class of non-local dispersal non-cooperative system, which can model the prey-predator and disease-transmission mechanism. By the Schauder's fixed-point theorem, we first establish the existence of travelling waves connecting the semi-trivial equilibrium to non-trivial leftover concentrations, whose bounds are deduced from a precise analysis. Further, we characterize the minimal wave speed of travelling waves and obtain the non-existence of travelling waves with slow speed. Finally, we apply the general results to an epidemic model with bilinear incidence for its propagation dynamics.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To demonstrate that olanzapine recapitulates the effect of increased lateral hypothalamic (LH) GABAergic activity in the DRN and the DBB. This will provide a potential neural substrate for the observed increase in consumption of food and weight gain. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: (1) We will examine electrophysiological activity of the DRN and the DBB in response to optogenetic stimulation of LH fibers to these nuclei. (2) We will identify the behavioral phenotype of stimulating these same projections using optogenetic techniques. (3a) Identify the behavioral phenotype of mice possessing cre-loxp-dependent knockout (KO) of LH GABAergic activity, DRN serotonergic activity, and inhibition of DBB cholinergic activity. (3b) Using these mice, we will establish behavioral response to olanzapine in ad libitum feeding and fast-refeeding condition. (4) Using baseline and post-treatment body mass index (BMI), PANSS, and side effect profile scores from a recently completed prospective cohort study of treatment-naive schizophrenic patients receiving atypical antipsychotics for 1 year, we will sequence multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms and explore the correlation of serotonergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptor mutations with the increase in BMI and changes in PANSS score and side effect scores. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: (1) Our preliminary data indicates that the LH exclusively sends GABAergic input to the DBB, and the large majority of its projections to the DRN are GABAergic. (2) We have identified that stimulating LH–>DBB projections produces intense feeding and drinking behavior, a real-time place preference for laser stimulation, and a conditioned place preference for laser stimulation. Preliminary data shows that the LH->DRN also produces feeding behavior. (3a) Our lab has demonstrated that transgenic mice with LH-specific GABA release KO are smaller, have increased anxiety-like behaviors such a repetitive grooming and open field aversion, and have reduced feeding after fasting conditions. We expect the DRN serotonergic KO mice to have increased body weight and reduced anxiety-like behaviors. (3b) Our pilot study demonstrated that the LH GABA KO mice administered olanzapine have a greater consumption of food over 1 hour than controls (n=7, 5, respectively; p=0.08). DRN serotonergic KO mice and mice with inhibition of choline will have an increased baseline feeding behavior, but will not be affected by olanzapine. (4) We believe that SNPs in serotonergic receptors such as 5HT2C, and those affecting dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors, will be more common in schizophrenic patients with increased BMI than those without. Further, we believe that a reduction in the PANSS items reflecting anxiety and aversiveness will correlate with increased BMI, since we postulate that mimicking LH GABAergic activity will produce its previously demonstrated anxiolytic effects. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Identifying the important role for a reward-oriented feeding center in the brain in producing antipsychotic weight gain will allow a more comprehensive, ethologically sound approach to behavioral modification therapy in these patients. It will lend mechanistic credence to weight control therapies which have used token economy, opioid antagonism, and other inhibition-promoting therapies. This study will also increase the validity for testing further the use of selective serotonin agonists which prevent weight gain such as lorcaserin.
High-precision concentrations of chlorite minerals from the Lingtai section in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the surrounding deserts are presented through a mineral liberation analyzer technique. Variations in chlorite concentration over the last 0.5 Ma display a typical pattern of glacial–interglacial changes, with its bulk content in loess units approximately twice that in paleosol units. This climate-driven chlorite change is more pronounced in the fine-size fraction (5–20 μm) of the loess deposits. Evidence from changes in hornblende and muscovite along the same profile suggests that the glacial–interglacial oscillations were likely controlled by changes in atmospheric circulation and shifts in the dust provenance instead of postdepositional weathering. A relatively high chlorite content in several deserts near Mt. Qilian compared with the other desert basins suggests that a transport pathway in the west–east direction, associated with southward shifts of the winter monsoons, may play an important role in modulating the chlorite records. In addition, enhanced saltation and transportation of dust materials is thought to be a main driver of the pronounced changes in the fine-size fraction. Finally, we discuss a possible forcing mechanism behind different long-term trends between the chlorite and its secondary weathering products we observed here.
We describe here a new turtle from the early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong Province, China. This turtle with a full row of well-developed inframarginal scutes is assigned to the basalmost testudinoids while stem testudinoids were believed to disappear by the Palaeocene–Eocene boundary. This account shows that stem testudinoids crossed this boundary in their original range. The first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of stem and modern testudinoids performed here demonstrates that the stem testudinoids, previously placed in the family ‘Lindholmemydidae’, do not form a monophyletic group, and the two major clades of testudinoids (Emydidae and Geoemydidae+Testudinidae) split one from another well before the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary, prior to the Late Cretaceous.
Currently, the systematics, biology and epidemiology of piscine Cryptosporidium species are poorly understood. Here, we compared Sanger ‒ and next-generation ‒ sequencing (NGS), of piscine Cryptosporidium, at the 18S rRNA and actin genes. The hosts comprised 11 ornamental fish species, spanning four orders and eight families. The objectives were: to (i) confirm the rich genetic diversity of the parasite and the high frequency of mixed infections; and (ii) explore the potential of NGS in the presence of complex genetic mixtures. By Sanger sequencing, four main genotypes were obtained at the actin locus, while for the 18S locus, seven genotypes were identified. At both loci, NGS revealed frequent mixed infections, consisting of one highly dominant variant plus substantially rarer genotypes. Both sequencing methods detected novel Cryptosporidium genotypes at both loci, including a novel and highly abundant actin genotype that was identified by both Sanger sequencing and NGS. Importantly, this genotype accounted for 68·9% of all NGS reads from all samples (249 585/362 372). The present study confirms that aquarium fish can harbour a large and unexplored Cryptosporidium genetic diversity. Although commonly used in molecular parasitology studies, nested PCR prevents quantitative comparisons and thwarts the advantages of NGS, when this latter approach is used to investigate multiple infections.
Bacillary dysentery continues to be a major health issue in developing countries and ambient temperature is a possible environmental determinant. However, evidence about the risk of bacillary dysentery attributable to ambient temperature under climate change scenarios is scarce. We examined the attributable fraction (AF) of temperature-related bacillary dysentery in urban and rural Hefei, China during 2006–2012 and projected its shifting pattern under climate change scenarios using a distributed lag non-linear model. The risk of bacillary dysentery increased with the temperature rise above a threshold (18·4 °C), and the temperature effects appeared to be acute. The proportion of bacillary dysentery attributable to hot temperatures was 18·74% (95 empirical confidence interval (eCI): 8·36–27·44%). Apparent difference of AF was observed between urban and rural areas, with AF varying from 26·87% (95% eCI 16·21–36·68%) in urban area to −1·90% (95 eCI −25·03 to 16·05%) in rural area. Under the climate change scenarios alone (1–4 °C rise), the AF from extreme hot temperatures (>31·2 °C) would rise greatly accompanied by the relatively stable AF from moderate hot temperatures (18·4–31·2 °C). If climate change proceeds, urban area may be more likely to suffer from rapidly increasing burden of disease from extreme hot temperatures in the absence of effective mitigation and adaptation strategies.