The human serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene is one of the most extensively studied in psychiatry. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with several psychiatric disorders as well as anxiety-related personality traits. In search of a mechanistic understanding of the functional implications of 5-HTTLPR, the influence of this polymorphism on regional 5-HT1A receptor density has previously been examined in two positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans, yielding, however, contradictory results. In the present study, 54 control subjects were examined with [11C]WAY 100635 PET and a battery of cognitive tests. Regional binding potential (BP) of [11C]WAY 100635 to 5-HT1A receptor was calculated for the dorsal raphe nuclei, the hippocampus, the anterior cingulate, the insula, the temporal cortex and the frontal cortex. The influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on regional 5-HT1A BP and cognitive performance was investigated. No differences in 5-HT1A receptor density between carriers and non-carriers of the S allele were found. Thus, we could not replicate any of the previously reported associations between 5-HTTLPR and 5-HT1A density. There was, however, a highly significant association between 5-HTTLPR genotype and performance in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; carriers of the S allele had a superior performance compared to the LL carriers. These observations suggest that functional implications of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism are not likely to be mediated by differences in 5-HT1A expression levels and that other biomarkers must be considered for future investigations at phenotype level.